Skip to Main Content
You are in the main content



  • Goods and services produced in one country and sold in other countries in exchange for goods and services, gold, foreign exchange, or settlement of debt. Countries devote their domestic resources to exports because they can obtain more goods and services with the international exchange they earn from the exports than they would from devoting the same resources to the domestic production of goods and services.

Export controls 

  • U.S. laws and their implementing regulations that govern the distribution to foreign nationals and foreign countries of strategically important technology, services, and information for reasons of foreign policy and national security.

Fundamental Research

  • Defined in National Security Division Directive 189 as follows:  "Fundamental research means basic and applied research in science and engineering, the results of which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from proprietary research and from industrial development, design, production, and product utilization, the results of which ordinarily are restricted for proprietary or national security reasons."