• Goods and services produced in one country and sold in other countries in exchange for goods and services, gold, foreign exchange, or settlement of debt. Countries devote their domestic resources to exports because they can obtain more goods and services with the international exchange they earn from the exports than they would from devoting the same resources to the domestic production of goods and services.

Export controls 

  • U.S. laws and their implementing regulations that govern the distribution to foreign nationals and foreign countries of strategically important technology, services, and information for reasons of foreign policy and national security.

Fundamental Research

  • Fundamental research means research in science, engineering, or mathematics, the results of which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the research community, and for which the researchers have not accepted restrictions for proprietary or national security reasons.

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