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Associate Professor
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PHILIP L. FRANA’s scholarly interests focus on the social and cultural aspects of robotics, automation, and information technology. He has published numerous articles on the history of technology, science, and medicine, and is editor and contributor to the Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence: The Past, Present, and Future of AI (2021). He is an associate professor in the Interdisciplinary Liberal Studies and Independent Scholars programs at James Madison University. Independent Scholars provides students with the opportunity to pursue individualized academic pathways custom-tailored to their interests.

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