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Glossary

Term Definition Source
Absolute emergency When calling the medevac chopper, the call can be priority (for non-mortal wounds), (absolute) emergency (for mortal wounds or ailments) or tactical emergency (casualties of a seriousness or on a scale such as to endanger mission). 1
Aeromedical Evacuation (AE) The movement of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transport; the evacuation can be inter-theatre or intra-theatre. 1
Ambush Mine A general term referring to directional mines such as Claymore and the MON series, actuated by remote control or tripwire and used to ambush vehicle convoys or foot patrols.
Ammunition Ammunition is anything that contains an active ingredient such as explosives, or a chemical, smoke, pyrotechnical or an incendiary composition. 4
Anti-Clearance Device A device attached to, or integral to, a mine which will explode or cause the mine to explode and designed to slow down the clearance of a minefield by making disturbance of the mine extremely dangerous and neutralization difficult.
Anti-Handling Device A device fitted to, added on. placed under, attached to or near that acts as part of a mine or munitions mechanism, which can be electrically or mechanically operated when the mind or munition is disturbed. 4
Anti-Materiel Designed to cause deterioration of or damage to selected material. 7
Anti-Personnel Designed to kill, wound, or obstruct personnel. 7
Anti-Tank Mine A mine which is designed to disable or destroy vehicles and tanks. The explosive can be activated by many types of fuse mechanism normally by pressure, tilt rod, influence or command detonated. 4
Area Reduction The act of defining and marking the extent of a mined area, usually undertaken as a part of a Level 2 survey. 4
Arming Device A device designed to perform the electrical and/or mechanical alignment necessary to initiate an explosive train. 7
Armed Delay Device A device which has been fitted to the mine or fuse in order to prevent activation for a set period after being activated. Normally used to ensure that the person or laying equipment has been able to withdraw from the immediate area. 4
Armed Period The period in which a mine or munition is electrically and/or mechanical armed and active. 4
Azimuth Azimuth is the horizontal angle, measured clockwise between a reference direction and the line to an observer or designated point. True azimuth is reference to north. Grid azimuth is referenced to a grid north. Magnetic is reference to a magnetic field. 1
Ballistic Protection Protection from projectiles, often referred to for protection against sniper or small arms ammunition but in demining terms is used for protection against fragmentation and blast. 4
Base Line The line which is used to initiate all demining operations and is the point from which all clearance lanes start. Also know as the start line. 4
Battle Area Clearance The term used for the clearance of all mines and UXO from an area of land. 4
Belleville Spring A metal or plastic disc-shaped diaphragm, with a metal striker on the concave side, which inverts when pressure has been exerted to one side. This causes the metal striker to come into contact with a detonator causing an explosion. 4
Benchmark A fixed point of reference outside the minefield. This point has known coordinates that have been either ascertained by survey, resection or use of DGPS. 4
Biochemical Neutralization Some organisms feed on certain elements of explosive chemical, thus rendering them inert, and therefore could theoretically be used in demining.
Black Widow A name given to the Russian PMN mine so called because of its effectiveness and color of the pressure plate. 4
Blasting Cap See detonator 4
Blind Any ammunition that has been thrown, projected at or placed upon a target and which fails to function completely at the point of delivery or placement. 4
Blow in situ The destruction of any item of ordnance by explosives without moving the item from where it was found, normally by placing an explosive charge alongside. Sometimes referred to as Blow in Place (BIP). 4
Blow in place See blow in situ 4
Body Armor In demining, the term protective armor normally refers to the flak jacket, but for EOD work this refers to the full body 'Bomb Suit'. 4
Bomb Disposal The act of disposing of UXO and IED. 6
Bomblet A term used to describe types of sub-munitions especially those packed within cluster bombs. Bomblets are designed to explode on contact with the target or the ground. 4
Booby Trap Any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure and which functions unexpectedly when a person or object (vehicle) disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act. 4
Booster Charge The addition of explosives in order to increase the detonation capability of the detonator in order to detonate the main charge. Sometimes used in order to increase the explosive content. This can be done by stacking mines and or adding explosives. 4
Bounding Mine A fragmentation anti-personnel mine that employs a primary charge to elevate the mine to a predetermined height before the main charge is initiated. Designed to kill. Sometimes called a Bouncing Betty.
Branch Line In mine clearance using the main line method, the length of detonator cord connected at one end to the explosive charge and at the other to the main line.
Box Mine A mine normally manufactured from plastic or timber, containing the explosive charge and the activating mechanism. Mainly used for AP mines but has also been used for some AT mine models. 4
Breaching Operations which clear a path though a mine filed using a variety of military equipment, manual means, Mine Detecting Dogs, or mechanical means. 4
Bund Walls Earth protections generally surrounding explosives storage. 4
Butterfly Mine Nickname given to scatterable air-dropped anti-personnel mines used by Soviet forces in Afghanistan. The PFM-1 gained notary when they attracted children who mistook them for toys.
Caliber The diameter of a projectile or the diameter of the bore of a gun or launching tube. Caliber is usually expressed in millimeters or inches. 7
Casing The fabricated outer part of an ordnance designed to hold an explosive charge and the mechanism required to fire this charge. 7
Call Signs Names or means of identification assigned to specific personnel used when communicating by radio. 4
Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC) Evacuation from the point of injury to the next suitable level of care. 1
Check Clearing When little or nothing is know about the mine situation in a given area, the area has to be check-cleared to establish whether it is mined and warrants a full fledged mine clearing operation.
Claymore Mine A directionally AP mine, the claymore consists of a curved outer case containing a huge number of fragments. Behind the fragments is a layer of explosive. The mine can be initiated by either pull or command detonation. 4
Clearance Clearing an area of all mines, UXO and IED to a predefined standard. 4
Clearance Site The site where demining activities (the removal of mines and/or UXO) are being conducted. 4
Clearance Standards The standards that are to be applied to clearance operations. Normally specified in the contract document or clearance plan. In the UN it is normally achieved to a clearance standard of 100 per cent with a tolerance error of not more than 0.4 per cent. 4
Clear Lane A lane that has been cleared of all mines and UXO. 4
Cluster Bomb Unit (CBU) A thin-walled canister containing and dispersing submuntions, anit-personnel or anti-tank mines, runway cratering bomblets, fragmentation bomblets, etc. Opened by a burster charge. 1
Cluster Munition A number of sub-munitions in one container that is aerially delivered. 4
Command-destructing Mine A mine that can be detonated by a remotely delivered command.
Compartment Syndrome Treatment and rehabilitation of mine victims; secondary damage caused by the inflammation and swelling of injured muscles an by the pressure which builds up as a result within each muscle compartment, to surrounding tissue and nerves.
Confidence Charge A small explosive charge used to familiarize trainees with the handling of explosives.
Corner Point In minefield surveying, the point in the perimeter trace in the minefield at which the perimeter line changes direction and where a new leg begins.
Countermine Military operations concerned primarily with rapid breaching of mined barriers rather than mine clearing through the use of ploughs, rollers, flails, etc., and not concerned with area clearance.
Crimp The act of fixing (crimping) the open end of a non-electric detonator to a length of safety fuse. 4
Crimper The tool used to crimp. 4
Danger Area A specified area above, below, or within which there may be potential danger (UXO/UXB). 1
Datum Point A point on the perimter of a mine field that has been surveyed in from the benchmark. It is a point that has known coordinates and can also be the start point, turning point and intermediate points of a lane. 4
Decontamination The process of making any person, object, or area safe by absorbing, destroying, neutralizing, making harmless, or removing chemical or biological agents, or by removing radioactive material clinging or to around it. 1
Delayed Primary Closure In the treatment and rehabilitation of mine victim, refers to the wounds after an amputation being closed only after a few days to avoid infection and slower healing.
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ, DZ) Area between the forward line of the parties, into which they have agreed not to deploy military forces and which may be placed under the control of a PKO. 1
Demining Term used to describe all aspects of mine clearance. 4
Demining Debt Used to describe the phenomena occurring when the uncleared landmines proliferate at a rate faster than adequate funds and technologies allow for as a rate of clearance.
Demolition Pit A hole in which mines and UXOs are placed for destruction. 4
Density The amount of mines in the minefield divided by the minefield length. This is normally referred to as mines per meter of minefield frontage. 4
Destruction in Situ Destruction of the mine of UXO normally by explosives, without moving the item. See also Blow in Situ. 4
Detonator A sensitive explosive item that can be initiated by either electrical or non electrical means. The first item in the explosive chain, used to initiate the main or booster charge. 6
Detonation Wave A shock wave which passes through high explosive as a uniform front, from the point of ignition, breaking the chemical bindings at molecular level. (>3000m/s) 4
Differential GPS A GPS which can provide reading to an accuracy of + 5cm. 4
Dispenser An item designed to be mounted, but not permanently fixed, on aircraft to carry and eject small ordnance. 7
Disposal Work EOD work. 4
Disarming The act of making safe by removing the fuse or igniter. The procedure normally removes one or more links from the firing chain. See also neutralization. 4
Donor Any government, individual, foundation, or other philanthropic entity that provides funds and/or non-monetary resources for the specific purpose of alleviating the effects of the landmine problem. 3
Double Impulse Mine A mine, normally an Anti-Tank, that is filled with a Double Impulse fuse which requires two separate pressures on the fuse in order to initiate the detonation chain. 4
Dragon Teeth Wedge-shaped concrete anti-tank obstacles laid in multiple rows. 1
Dumb Mine A mine that is actuated by simple mechanical means and is not equipped with seismic, infrared or magnetic sensors. Also commonly used to describe a mine which is not equipped with a self-destructing, self-deactivating or self-neutralizing feature.
Electrical Initiation Initiation of an electrical detonator. 4
Electromagnetic Induction Transfer of electrical power from one circuit to another by varying the magnetic linkage. 7
Environmental Restoration The process of cleaning up areas that have experienced military action or armed conflict eliminating munitions, explosives, and harmful by-products to restore the area to peaceful civilian pursuits.
Exploder A device used to safely produce an electrical current through electrical cable in order to initiate electric detonators or safety fuse ignitors. Also known as a blasting machine or firing device. 4
Exploratory Breach A method of breaching the suspect mined area in order to identify the actual location of the mine strips or rows and obtain mines information. 4
Explosive A substance or mixture of substances which under external influences, is capable of rapidly releasing energy in the form of gases and heat. 6
Explosive Detector Dogs (or Explosive Sensing Dogs) Dogs specifically trained to detect the vapors emitted by explosives. Some dogs are also trained to detect tripwires and non-explosive booby traps. Known as explosive or mine-detecting dogs. 4
Explosive Ordnance (EO) Munitions that contain explosives, nuclear fission or fusion material, or biological and chemical agents. Includes bombs, warheads, missiles, artillery, mortar, small arms ammunition, mines and more. 4
Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) The detection, identification, field evaluation, render safe, recovery and disposal of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO). EOD may be undertaken:A. 4
Extraction Drill The immediate action undertaken in response to an uncontrolled detonation which has caused injury to personnel. It involves team members in the recovery of injured personnel and the provision of first aid. Also known as man down drill. 4
Flail Rotary flail devices are typically composed of cylindrical drum structures housing a collection of chains on a horizontal bar which spins beating the ground ahead of tanks to detonate anti-tank mines.
Field Ambulance All terrain vehicle, equipped as an ambulance. 1
Firing Device A device such as an exploder, used to produce an electrical current in order to initiate an electrical detonator. See exploder. 4
Free From Explosive (FFE) The state of a particular manufactured munitions which has had all the explosive removed. All mines or munitions being used for training and demonstrative aids should have the explosives removed and be marked 'FFE'. 4
Fragmentation Term applied to ordnance indicating that it is primarily intended to produce a fragmentation effect. 7
Fragmentation Mine Above ground anti personnel mine containing fragments, stell balls, pellets, or a fragmented outer casing which is dispersed by the mine becoming the primary cause of injury.
Fragmentation Zone Area covered by a mine's primary injury causing material. Notes of importance are amount of explosive, body construction, type of material, ground conditions, etc. See also Secondary Fragmentation. 4
Full Width Clearance Clearance of a lane to the total vehicle width. This normally includes a small margin at each side. Associated with mechanical mine clearance equipment such as flails, rollers in tandem, sifter and full width ploughs. 4
Fuse or Fuze Mechanism to activate a mine or munition. May be electrical, chemical, or mechanical; by push, pull, pressure, release and time activation, singly or in combination. Usually consists of ignitor and detonator. 4
Fuze, Delay Any impact fuze incorporating a means of delaying its action after contact with the target. Delay fuzes are classified by the length of time of the delay. 7
Fuze, Impact A fuze in which detonation is initiated by the force of impact and that usually functions instantaneously or after a short delay. 7
Fuze, Proximity A fuze wherein primary initiation occurs by remotely sensing the presence, distance, and/or direction of target through the characteristics of the target itself or its environment. 7
Fuze, Self-Destruct A fuze designed to burst a projectile before the end of its flight. 7
Gap Sensitivity The distance beyond which a sympathetic detonation between two explosives becomes improbable.
Gradiometer Magnetometer for measuring the rate of change of a magnetic. 7
Ground Penetrating Radar A system that uses pulsed radio waves to penetrate the ground and measure the distance and direction of substance targets through radio waves that are reflected back to the system. 7
Gunpowder An explosive that must be confined in order to create an low order explosion. It decomposes through a combustion reaction at a very fast rate. This reaction takes place on the surface of the composition and burns layer by layer.
Hand Clearance The act of clearing hazardous areas manually. Normally refers to clearance teams using mine detectors an probes. 4
Hollow charge See shaped charge.
Horizontal Action Mine An Anti-Tank/Vehicle mine placed at the side of the track or road which will normally be activated by a vehicle. The Horizontal Action Mine will propel a shaped charge warhead into the side of the vehicle or tank. See also Off Route Mine.
Host Nation A mine-plagued country within which demining activities are anticipated or occurring.
Host Nation Support (HNS) Country requiring civilian and military personnel to assist in the removal of mines, medical support, resource and infrastructure maintanence, etc. 1
Humanitarian Demining The safe, effective and cost efficient clearance of landmines from land and littoral areas in order that life can return to normal.
Humanitarian Mine Clearance The removal of mines and UXO under the auspices of a humanitarian organization in order to allow the land to be returned to the local community.
Illumination Term applied to ordnance indicating that it is primarily intended to produce light of high intensity. Such ordnance usually contains a flare and may contain a parachute for suspension in the air. 7
Impact Area An area having designated boundaries within the limits of which all ordnance will detonate or impact. 1
Improvised Explosive Device (IED) An improvised device is normally of local manufacture and is often associated with booby traps. It has all the elements of a mass manufactured mine or booby trap. 4
Incendiary Any flammable material that is used as a filler in ordnance intended to destroy a target by fire. 7
Inert Describes a mine or munition without explosives. May be identical to actual live object. Used for training and should be marked inert. See also FFE. 6
Indiscriminate Effect Caused by the inherent time lag between the laying of mines and their explosion, mines often present an unknown danger for the future.
Influence Fuse Mine A mine with a fuse which has been designed to be activated by the actual magnetic or other influences such IR, radar, seismic or combination thereof. 4
Intermediate Lane A lane forward of the start or base line where all cleared lanes finish and successive lanes commence. Intermediate lanes are numbered successively forward of the start line. 4
Intermediate Marker A marker used between the start and finish markers or between turning points on the perimeter of a mine field to indicate an intermediate point. 4
International Organizations (IOs) Organizations with a global charter and influence such as the United Nations and International Committee of the Red Cross. 8
Irregular Outer Edge Short mine strips in an irregular manner or pattern in front of minefields, facing the enemy, to deceive them as to the shape and density of the main minefield. It consists of both AT and AP mines. 4
Kevlar A synthetic (aramid) fiber of very high tensile strength, woven into bulletproof vests, molded into solid sheets of lightweight armor (from aircraft to helmets). 1
Landmark A permanent feature or object that has known coordinates and is easy to identify on the ground. Used in conjunction with a benchmark to locate the start point of a mine field perimeter. Also called a reference point. 4
Landmine Any munition designed and manufactured to be detonated after it has been laid by the presence, proximity, or contact of a person or vehicle. 2
Landmine- affected Country A country in which landmines and/or UXO present a hazard to human life and the health and safety of the population living, working, or traveling in their vicinity. 3
Lane A route through a minefield that provides safe passage. 3
Low Order Technique A specific EOD technique which uses a small explosive to disrupt a UXO without initiating the main charge. 4
Magnetometer An instrument for measuring the intensity and direction of magnetic fields. 7
Main Charge The main and normally the largest explosive charge of a mine or munition. Normally initiated by either the detonator or a booster charge. 4
Materiel All items necessary for the equipment, maintenance, operation, and support of military activities without distinction as to their application for administrative or combat purposes; excludes ships or naval aircraft. 7
Mine An explosive or other material, normally encased, designed to destroy or damage vehicles, boats, aircraft, and people. May be detonated by the action of a target, time, or remote controll. 6
Mine Action All aspects at a national program to address the mine problem in a country. 4
Mine Action Center Mine Action Center usually refers to a facility, containing personnel who coordinate and assist the national mine action activities in a country. 4
Mined Area An area declared dangerous due to the presence or suspected presence of mines. 6
Mine Awareness Informing, teaching, and/or relaying messages about landmines to the public. It is intended to modify behavior patterns to reduce casualties 4
Mine Awareness Training Program to assist dealing with landmines until mines can be removed. Teaches detection, identification, marking, avoidance, reporting, mapping, rudimentary extrication, and first aid skills. 2
Mine Clearance The clearance of Mines and UXO from a specified area to a predefined standard. 4
Mine Clearance Training Program to train in the techniques of locating and permanently clearing landmines. Includes mine detection and disposal techniques emphasizing destruction of the located mine on site.
Mine Cluster Anti Tank or Anti Personnel mines are often laid in groups or clusters. They can consist of one or several mines of one or various types. 4
Mine Database Houses information on land mines and UXO, used for determining national plan priorities, collating and analyzing the mine information, surveys, performance, and other mine clearance related details. 4
Minefield In land warfare, an area of ground containing mines laid with or without a pattern. 6
Minefield Density The average number of landmines detected per square meter of minefield or the number of mines in a known pattern.
Minefield Survey One of three disciplines in demining which involves gathering intelligence in order to identify, mark, and reduce suspect or known minefield areas. See Survey. 4
Mine Intelligence Information collected from hospitals, aid workers, the local population, warring factions, and governmental sources regarding the location, types and density of know minefields present in the area.
Mine Investigation An investigation into a mine related accident or incident. 4
Mine Protected Vehicle An investigation into amine related accident or incident. 4
Mine Verification The act of verifying that an area or road is clear of mines and munitions. Normally undertaken when roads have been frequently used but actual mine clearance operations have not taken place. 4
Minimum Metal Content Term used for AT and more importantly AP mines that contain limited amounts of or mixes of metal content with the intent of avoiding detection. 4
Misfire The failure of a munition or explosive charge to fire or explode as intended. 4
Monitoring The authorized observation, by qualified personnel, in order to report on a clearance or demining activity, without taking responsibility for the quality or effectiveness. 4
Munition 1. Ordnance. 2. Any and all supplies and equipment required to conduct warfare. 7
Neutralization The act of replacing safety devices, such as pins or rods into an explosive item to prevent the fuse or ignitor from functioning. It does not make the item completely safe as removal of the pins or rods will immediately make the item active again. 4
NG Based Explosives Nitro-Glycerine based explosives. 4
Night Vision Device using passive light or image intesifiers. Instances may include googles, rifle scopes, or periscopes, and may include laser aiming lights (laser illuminators or designators, target markers, spot projectors). 1
Non-Metallic Mine A mine that contains no metal content but is a title often used incorrectly for mines that have minimum metal content. 4
Non-Reconstitutable Mine A self-deactivating, self-neutralizing, or command-neutralizing mine that cannot be reactivated by means available outside its manufacturing plant or comparable facility.
Nuisance Minefield The term used for a few mines placed randomly around locations that will disorganize or demoralize an enemy. 4
Off-Route Mine A mine that fires a projectile into the side of a tank or vehicle, the mine sensor or fuse normally being activated by the vehicle. Sometimes referred to as the Horizontal Action Mine. 4
Ordnance 1. Military weapons collectively, along with ammunition and the equipment to keep them in good repair. 2. Explosives, chemicals, pyrotechnics, and similar stores, e.g., bombs, guns and ammunition, flares, smoke, napalm. 7
Osteomyelitis The infection of the bone cortex and marrow which occurs if metal, explosive fragments, or other foreign bodies are not removed from an amputees wound. 4
Patterned Minefield An Anti-Tank, Anti-Personnel or mixed minefield where the mines are laid out in known mine clusters, rows or mine strips. Can be laid by hand or mechanical means. 4
Perimeter Marking The outer visible marking of a minefield, consisting of normally wire tape and/or mine field warning signs. 4
Plastic Explosive A moldable form of high explosive. 4
Phony Minefield A area of ground prepared using fences, mine boxes and other minefield identification material to give the impression of a live minefield without it containing any landmines. Used to deceive. 4
Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs) Non-profit humanitarian assistance organizations involved in development and relief activities. Often used synonymously with nongovernmental organizations. 8
Probe A tool, consisting of one or more pointed rods or tines is used to probe the subsurface of the ground at a predetermined angle in order to locate buried ordnance. Also known as a prodder. 4
Prodder See Probe (above). 4
Prodding Location of individual mines by prodding the ground with a thin rod or blade inserted at an angle every 4-5 cm (i.e., 400-600 prodding actions every square meter)
Projectile An object projected by an applied force and continuing in motion by its own inertia, as a bullet, bomb, shell or grenade. Also applied to rockets and to guided missiles. 7
Propellant A chemical material or combination of materials which have a high and uniform combustion rate, producing a large quantity of gas and heat upon ignition. 4
Protective Minefield A minefield laid by a unit in order to assist its local, close in protection. Normally consists of only Anti Personnel mines. 4
Pulling The act of attaching a wire or cable to a mine or munition in order to move the item in case an anti-lift or anti-disturbance device has been attached. 4
Quality Assurance These process and procedures, management oriented, which if followed would result in a quality product or outcome. 4
Quality Control Activities focused on determining through measurement, the level of compliance with technical standard. 4
Reduce The creation of a lane through, over, or around a minefield. Refers to destroying, neutralizing, removing, or by passing mines. 3
Reference Point A fixed point of reference outside the minefield. This point has known coordinates that have been either ascertained by survey, resection or use by GPS. Also called a benchmark. 6
Ribbon Charge Specific technique for emplacing explosives. 4
Render Safe Procedures (RSPs) Render Safe Procedures are the procedures that enable the neutralization and/or disarming of mines and munitions to occur in a recognized an safe manner. 6
Safe Lane A lane that is clear of all mines and UXO. 4
Safety Distance Distance to be maintained at all times between deminers; usually 50 meters between teams and 5 meters between members of the same team.
Self-deactivating Mine A mine that automatically renders itself inoperable by means of exhausting a component of the mine that is essential to the operation of the mine.
Self-eliminating Mine A mine that is self-destructing, self-deactivating, and non-reconstitutable.
Soak Time Period of time when a device or munition is left undisturbed before any further pre-determined action will be taken. Refers to IED or when a misfire has occurred. Derived from earlier times when devices were placed in water to make inert. 6
Safe Lane A lane that is clear of all mines and UXO. 4
Secondary Fragmentation The material not belonging to the mine resulting from the detonation such as rocks, branches and dirt. Depending on the material, secondary fragmentation can travel long distances. 4
Self-destructing Mine A mine that automatically destroys itself by means of an incorporated mechanism.
Self-neutralizing Mine A mine that automatically renders itself inoperable by means of an incorporated mechanism.
Shaped Charge A charge shaped so as to concentrate its explosive force in a particular direction. 4
Single Impulse Mine A mine activated by pressure that is designed to activate after a single actuation on the pressure mechanism. 4
Site Mapping A diagram that details the organization or a working site. 4
Smoke 1. Filling for ordnance such as bombs, projectiles, and grenades. 2. Term applied to ordnance indicating that it is primarily intended to produce smoke of the types or colors specified. 7
Start Line A line related to the Benchmark or reference point forward of which all demining occurs. The line does not have to be straight. See also base line. 4
Start Point A point where demining commences within a allotted clearance area. Normally the Start Point is the location where the first clearance lane intersects the start line. 4
Stopping Power The term given to the stopping power of any minefield indicating the capability of the minefield to stop vehicles and tanks before as a percentage of target hits. It is not normally associated with antipersonnel mines. 4
Sub-Surface Clearance Mine clearance is categorized by depth; in this case, the ground has to be searched for mines to a depth of 200 mm, the layer where antipersonnel mines are found.
Sub-munitions Sub-munitions are minelets or bomblets that form part of a cluster bomb or artillery shell payload. 4
Survey The method of determining the location of suspect or verified mined areas and further determining through survey methods the perimeters of the actual mined area. This is undertaken by use of three level of survey 4
Survivor Assistance See Victim Assistance 3
Tethering Wire A wire connecting the internal body to the outer container of a central portion of the bounding mine which determines the height at which the main charge will detonate. 4
Tilt Rod A post or pole normally attached to a fuse mechanism on top of a mine. Pressure against the tilt rod activates by breaking or releasing mechanical retaining devices, thereby starting the activation chain of the fuzing mechanism. 4
Train-the-Trainer A concept for training instructors who then train other personnel in learned techniques. This method develops a host nation infrastructure capable of training other host nation personnel to execute mine clearance and mine awareness operations. 2
Track Width Clearance Normally associated with mechanical clearance devices that clear the width of the vehicle tracks only, such as rollers and ploughs. See also full width clearance. 4
Tripwire A wire attached to one or more mines in order to increase the activation area of the mine. Pressure or the breaking of this trip wire will result in activation of the mine fuse. Normally attached to a bounding and fragmentation type mine. 4
Turning Point A surveyed point on the perimeter of a minefield where there is a change in direction. This point has known coordinates and is related by bearing (azimuth) and distance to either an earlier turning point or intermediate point. 4
Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Explosive ordnance which ahs been primed, fuzed, armed or otherwise prepared for use or used. It could have been fired, dropped, launched, projected yet remains unexploded either through malfunction or design or for any other cause. 4
Victim Assistance Activity associated with restoring the victims (survivors) of landmines to a productive life and livelihood. Includes resettlement, medical rehabilitation, and training in civilian pursuits made necessary because of the effects of landmines. 3
Warhead That part of a missile, projectile, rocket, or other munitions that contains the explosive system, chemical or biological agents, or inert materials intended to inflict damage. 7
White Phosphorous A chemical that when exposed to air burns spontaneously, producing dense clouds of white smoke. 7
Working Lane The lane where one or more deminers are working. 4
Access Lane A marked passage leading through a mined area that has been cleared to provide safe movement to a required point or area. 5
Acceptance The formal acknowledgement by the sponsor that the equipment meets the stated requirements and is suitable for use in mine action programmes. An acceptance may be given with outstanding caveats 5
Accident An undesired event that results in harm. 5
Accreditation The procedure by which a demining organization is formally recognised as competent and able to plan and manage mine action activities safely, effectively and efficiently. 5
Accreditation Body An organization, normally an element of the national mine action authority, responsible for the management and implementation of the national accreditation system. 5
Advocacy Public support, recommendation or positive publicity with the aim of removing, or at least reducing, the threat from, and the impact of, mines and UXO. 5
Alienation The transfer of ownership or property rights following the handover of cleared land. 5
Amended Protocol II Amended Protocol II (APII) to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW). 5
Applied Research Research focused at clearly defined problems and market opportunities. 5
Boundary Lane A cleared lane around the perimeter of a hazardous area. 5
Briefing Area A clearly identifiable control point intended to be the first point of entry to a demining worksite. 5
Box A squared area that is developed for the purpose of being searched by mine detection dogs during the license test. 5
Burning Ground An area authorised for the destruction of ammunition and explosives by burning. 5
Cancelled Area An area previously recorded as a hazardous area which subsequently is considered, as a result of actions other than clearance, not to represent a risk from mines and UXO. 5
Certification Committee A committee appointed by UNMAS to regularly review compliance of the impact component of the general mine action assessment process with the UN certification guidelines based on the reports of the UN quality assurance monitor from the field. 5
Collaboration An activity which applies solely to the procurement of common equipment by two or more organizations. 5
Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Equipment that is available direct from the manufacturer and requires no further development prior to introduction into service apart from minor modifications. 5
Commonality A state achieved when groups of individuals or organizations use common procedures and/or equipment. 5
Community Liaison A process designed to place the needs and priorities of mine affected communities at the centre of the planning, implementation and monitoring of mine action and other sectors. 5
Compatibility The capability of two or more components or sub-components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same environment without mutual interference. 5
Concept Formulation The first stage in the procurement process, and covers the period of the emergence of the idea to the initial statement of the operational need. 5
Control Area or Point All points or areas used to control the movements of visitors and staff in a demining worksite. 5
Critical Non-conformity The failure of a 1.0m2 unit of land during inspection to meet the stated clearance requirements. 5
Deflagration The conversion of explosives into gaseous products by chemical reactions at or near the surface of the explosive (cf detonation). 5
Demilitarisation The process that renders munitions unfit for their originally intended process. 5
Deminer A person, including a public servant, qualified and employed to undertake demining activities or work on a demining worksite. 5
Demining Accident An accident at a demining workplace involving a mine or UXO hazard (c.f mine accident). 5
Demining Accident Response Plan A documented plan developed for each demining workplace which details the procedures to be applied to move victims from a demining accident site to an appropriate treatment or surgical care facility. 5
Demining Incident An incident at a demining workplace involving a mine or UXO hazard (c.f mine incident) 5
Demining Organization Refers to any organization (government, NGO, military or commercial entity) responsible for implementing demining projects or tasks. The demining organization may be a prime contractor, subcontractor, consultant or agent. 5
Demining Sub-Unit An element of a demining organization, however named, which is licensed to conduct one or more prescribed demining activities, such as technical surveys, manual clearance, EOD or the use of mine detection dog teams. 5
Demolition (DML) Destruction of structures, facilities or material by use of fire, water, explosives, mechanical or other means 5
Demolition Ground An area authorised for the destruction of ammunition and explosives by detonation. 5
Destruction The process of final conversion of ammunition and explosives into an inert state that can no longer function as designed. 5
Detection The discovery by any means of the presence of mines or UXO. 5
Detonation The rapid conversion of explosives into gaseous products by means of a shock wave passing through the explosive (c.f. deflagration). Typically, the velocity of such a shock wave is more than two orders of magnitude higher than a fast deflagration). 5
Development The stage of the project (and its associated costs) prior to production concerned with developing a design sufficiently for production to begin. 5
Disposal Site An area authorised for the destruction of ammunition and explosives by detonation and burning. 5
DNT (Dinitrotolulene) An impurity product of TNT. As the vapour pressure of DNT is much higher than that of TNT itself, it may prove easier to characterize a mine by detecting the vapour from DNT rather than TNT. 5
Drill An inert replica of ammunition specifically manufactured for display or instructional purposes. 5
Durability The ability of an item or material to continue to perform its required function under stated conditions as time progresses. Durability is a function of reliability with time. 5
Ensemble The group of protective clothing designed to be worn as a protective measure. 5
Equipment A physical, mechanical, electrical and/or electronic system which is used to enhance human activities, procedures and practices. 5
Environmental Factors Factors relating to the environment and that influence the transportation of scent from the mine, the detection of the target scent or the ability of people and dogs to work safety and effectively. (i.e. Wind, rain, temperature, humidity, altitude, sun and vegetation). (Definition for Mine Detection Dog use only). 5
Evaluation The analysis of a result or a series of results to establish the quantitative and qualitative effectiveness and worth of software, a component, equipment or system, within the environment in which it will operate. 5
Expert Opinion Existing information on the location of mine impacted communities at a level higher than the second administrative level in a given country, (eg: higher than district level). 5
Explosive Materials Components or ancillary items used by demining organizations which contain some explosives, or behave in an explosive manner, such as detonators and primers. 5
Failure An event in which any system, equipment, components or sub-components does not perform as previously specified. 5
Feasibility Study A study to establish the feasibility of the Statement of Tasks and Output (STO) in terms of technology, costs and time. 5
Field Editor An individual whose main responsibility is to ensure accuracy, consistency, readability and clarity of the information gathered by enumerators in the field. 5
Full Development (FD) The procedure containing all of the engineering processes, trials and tests necessary to establish the final detailed design to enable full production to commence. 5
General Mine Action Assessment The process by which a comprehensive inventory can be obtained of all reported and/or suspected locations of mine or UXO contamination, the quantities and types of explosive hazards, and information on local soil characteristics, vegetation and climate; and assessment of the scale and impact of the landmine problem on the individual, community and country. 5
Generic Requirement The performance and environmental characteristics which will be common to all planned uses of the proposed equipment. 5
Georeferencing A process whereby graphic coordinates or other indirect referencing codes are added to tabular data in order to allow simple comparison, compilation and analysis of disparate datasets based on common locations. 5
Group Interview The conduct of a formal interview with a group of key informants in an impacted community on what to survey within that community. 5
Guide An IMAS Guide provides general rules, principles, advice and information. 5
Handover The process by which the beneficiary (usually the national mine action authority) accepts responsibility for the cleared area. The term 'alienation' is sometimes used to describe a change of ownership of the land which accompanies the handover of a cleared area. 5
Handover Certificate Documentation used to record the handover of cleared land. 5
Hardware Equipment with physical size and mass; as opposed to software. 5
Harm Physical injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the environment [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)]. 5
Hazard Potential source of harm [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)]. 5
Hazard(ous) area A generic term for an area not in productive use due to the perceived or actual presence of mines, UXO or other explosive devices. 5
Hazard Marker Object(s), other than hazard signs, used to identify the limits of a mine and UXO hazard area. Hazard markers shall conform to the specification established by the national mine action authority. 5
Hazard Sign A permanent, manufactured sign which, when placed as part of a marking system, is designed to provide warning to the public of the presence of mines. 5
Hazard Marking System A combination of measures (signs and barriers) designed to provide the public with warning and protection from mine and UXO hazards. The system may include the use of signs or markers, or the erection of physical barriers. 5
Health In relation to work, indicated not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, it also includes the physical and mental elements affecting health, which are directly related to safety and hygiene at work. [ILO C155] 5
Impact The level of social and economic suffering experienced by the community resulting from the harm or risk of harm caused by mine and UXO hazards and hazardous areas. 5
Impact Survey An assessment of the socio-economic impact caused by the actual or perceived presence of mines and UXO, in order to assist the planning and prioritisation of mine action programmes and projects. 5
Incident An event that gives rise to an accident or has the potential to lead to an accident [ILO C155]. 5
Inspection The process of measuring, examining, testing or otherwise comparing a sample of cleared land with the clearance requirements 5
Inspection Body An organization which conducts post-clearance QC on behalf of the national mine action authority by applying random sampling procedures, or other appropriate and agreed methods of inspection. 5
Insurance An arrangement for compensation in the event of damage to or loss of (property, life or a person). 5
Intended Use (land) Use of land following demining operations. 5
Interchangeability A condition which exists when two or more items of equipment possess such functional and physical characteristics as to be equivalent in performance and durability, and are capable of being exchanged for one another without alteration of the items themselves, or of adjoining items, except for adjustment, and without selection for fit and performance. 5
Intermediate Point Survey markers used between start and finish markers, or between turning points that are more than 50m apart. 5
International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) Documents developed by the UN on behalf of the international community, which aim to improve safety and efficiency in mine action by providing guidance, by establishing principles and, in some cases, by defining international requirements and specifications. 5
Investment Appraisal The process of defining the objectives of expenditure, identifying the alternative ways of achieving those objectives and assessing which way is likely to give best value for money. 5
Key Informants Individuals who have relatively good knowledge on the hazardous areas in and around their community. 5
Lachrymatory ammunition Lachrymatory ammunition contains chemical compounds that are designed to incapacitate by causing short-term tears or inflammation of the eyes. 5
Level 2 Survey The term previously used for a technical survey. 5
Licence A certificate issued by a national mine action authority to a demining organization which indicates an endorsement of the organization's demining capabilities such as survey, manual clearance or the use of mine detection dogs. (see also accreditation) 5
Local Requirement The performance and characteristics of the proposed equipment which reflect local environmental conditions, operating procedures and operational requirements. 5
Logistic Disposal The removal of ammunition and explosives from a stockpile utilising a variety of methods, (that may not necessarily involve destruction). Logistic disposal may or may not require the use of RSP. 5
Magazine Any building, structure or container approved for the storage of explosive materials. 5
Maintainability The ability of an equipment, component or sub-component under stated conditions of use, to be retained or restored to a specific condition, when maintenance is performed by personnel having specific skill levels, under stated conditions and using prescribed procedures and resources. 5
Marking Emplacement of a measure or combination of measures to identify the position of a hazard or the boundary of a hazardous area. This may include the use of signs, paint marks etc, or the erection of physical barriers. 5
Marking System An agreed convention for the marking of hazards or hazardous areas. 5
Mechanically-Assisted Clearance The use of appropriate mechanical equipment to augment other procedures in humanitarian demining such as manual clearance and mine detection dogs (MDDs). 5
Medical Support Staff Employees of demining organizations designated, trained and equipped to provide first aid and further medical treatment of demining employees injured as a result of a demining accident. 5
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) A document used to facilitate a situation or operation when it is not the intention to create formal rights and obligations in international law but to express commitments of importance in a non-binding form. 5
Mine Accident An accident away from the demining workplace involving a mine or UXO hazard (c.f demining accident) 5
Mine Detection Dog (MDD) A dog trained and employed to detect mines, UXO and other explosive devices. 5
Mine Incident An incident away from the demining workplace involving a mine or UXO hazard (c.f demining incident) 5
Mine Sign A sign which, when placed as part of a marking system, is designed to provide warning to the public of the presence of mines. 5
Mine Threat An indication of the potential harm from the number, nature, disposition and detectability of mines and UXO in a given area. 5
Monitoring Body An organization, normally an element of the national mine action authority, responsible for management and implementation of the national monitoring system. 5
National Mine Action Authority The government department(s), organization(s) or institution(s) in each mine-affected country charged with the regulation, management and coordination of mine action. 5
Non-Sparking Material Material that will not produce a spark when struck with other tools, rocks, or hard surfaces 5
Operational Analysis A field of research that applies scientifically based quantitative and qualitative analysis to assist management decisions. 5
Particle Board A composition board made of small pieces of wood, bonded together. 5
Permanent Marking System A marking system having an indefinite period of use, usually requiring maintenance. (c.f. temporary marking system). 5
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) All equipment and clothing designed to provide protection, which is intended to be worn or held by a employee at work and which protects him/her against one or more risks to his/her safety or health. 5
Policy Defines the purpose and goals of an organization, and it articulates the rules, standards and principles of action which govern the way in which the organization aims to achieve these goals. 5
Post Design Service (PDS) Further services such as ongoing development and modification of equipment, subsequent to the acceptance of the equipment. 5
Public Education The process aimed at raising general awareness of the mine and UXO threat; through public information, formal and non-formal education systems. 5
Public Information Information which is released or published for the primary purpose of keeping the public fully informed, thereby gaining their understanding and support. 5
Preliminary Development (PD) The planning, design and engineering work necessary to explore areas of technical uncertainty and to provide detailed estimates of duration and cost before the decision to proceed to full development is made. 5
Preliminary Study A study to give an indication of the practicability of the idea in terms of technological possibilities and cost. 5
Pre-Test A process at the start of a survey to validate clarity and appropriateness of the selected survey instrument. 5
Pilot Test A process ahead of the commencement of wide range data collection to ensure that all survey project elements, such as team deployment, data collection, reporting and administration, are functioning as planned. 5
Primer A self-contained munition which is fitted into a cartridge case or firing mechanism and provides the means of igniting the propellant charge. 5
Procurement The process of research, development and production or purchase which leads to an equipment being accepted as suitable for use, and continues with the provision of spares and post design services throughout the life of the equipment. 5
Protective Measure Means used to reduce risk [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)]. 5
Prototype An equipment, component or sub-component built as nearly as possible to the final design and build standard. 5
Proximity Verification An activity to observe mine/UXO hazard areas reported during the community interview. 5
Pure Research Research activities not linked to any specific application. The outcome of pure research may eventually lead to a product, but its immediate aim is to establish generic principles. 5
Quality Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements. [ISO 9000:2000] 5
Quality Management Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality. [ISO 9000:2000] 5
Random Sampling Selection of samples by a process involving equal chances of selection of each item. Used as an objective or impartial means of selecting areas for test purposes. 5
Raster Data The use of an imaginary grid of cells to represent the landscape. Point features are stored as individual column/row entries in a grid; lines are identified as a set of connected cells; and areas are distinguished as all of the cells comprising a feature. 5
RDX (1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane) RDX is another military explosive which is used extensively as an explosive in many munitions formulations, especially in artillery shells. RDX is relatively insensitive; it has a high chemical stability, although lower than that of TNT. RDX is never handled pure and dry because of the danger of accidental explosion. It is used as a component in explosive mixtures, especially plastic explosives. 5
Relational Database Management System (RDMS) As opposed to a single table with numerous fields for each record entered, a RDMS uses identification codes to link multiple tables of data. The codes used establish the relationship between data tables. RDMS are very effective in managing large amounts of data and permitting detailed queries to determine the relationship among data compiled against different records. 5
Reliability The ability of an equipment, component or sub-component to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. 5
Research The systematic inquiry, examination and experimentation to establish facts and principles. 5
Residual The risk remaining following the application of all reasonable efforts to remove and/or destroy all mine or UXO hazards from a specified area to a specified depth. [modified from ISO Guide 51:1999] 5
Risk Combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] 5
Risk Analysis Systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to estimate the risk [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] 5
Risk Assessment Overall process comprising a risk analysis and a risk evaluation [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] 5
Risk Evaluation Process based on risk analysis to determine whether the tolerable risk has been achieved. [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] 5
Risk Reduction Actions taken to lessen the probability, negative consequences or both, associated with a particular risk. 5
Safe The absence of risk. Normally the term tolerable risk is more appropriate and accurate. 5
Safety The reduction of risk to a tolerable level [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] 5
Sample One or more 1.0m2 units of land drawn at random from a lot. 5
Sample Size The number of 1.0m2 units of land in the sample. 5
Sampling A defined procedure whereby part or parts of an area of cleared land are taken, for testing, as a representation of the whole area. 5
Sampling Plan A specific plan that indicates the number of 1.0m2 units of land from each lot which are to inspected (sample size or series of sample sizes) and the associated criteria for determining the acceptability of the lot (acceptance and rejection numbers). 5
Sapping A procedure employed in the process of demining whereby, in conjunction with other procedures, ground is cleared by digging forward to a specified depth from a safe start point. 5
Scent A distinctive odor. 5
Secondary Fragmentation In an explosive event, fragmentation which was not originally part of the mine/UXO. 5
Self-Neutralization Action generated by means of a device integral to a mine, which renders the mine inoperative, but not necessarily safe to handle. In landmines, this process may be reversible. [AAP-6] 5
Specified Area That area for which mine clearance activity has been contracted or agreed, as determined by the national mine action authority or an organization acting on its behalf. 5
Specified Depth The depth to which a specified area is contracted or agreed to be cleared of mine and UXO hazards, as determined by the national mine action authority or an organization acting on its behalf. 5
Specified Quality Limit (SQL) An indication of the quality required from clearance operations. 5
Sponsor The sponsor of an equipment trial is the authority requiring the trial to be carried out. 5
Standard A standard is a documented agreement containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose 5
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Instructions which define the preferred or currently established method of conducting an operational task or activity. 5
Standards Requirements, specifications or other precise criteria, to be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. 5
Statement of Requirement (SOR) The document that provides a detailed statement of the characteristics and performance expected of the equipment, based on the preferred solution. 5
Stockpile A large accumulated stock of EO. 5
Stockpile Destruction The physical destructive procedure towards a continual reduction of the national stockpile. 5
Survey Marker A durable and long lasting marker used to assist in the management of marked and cleared land demining operations. 5
Task Identification Number (ID) A unique number used to designate a hazardous area. Task identification numbers shall be allocated by the national mine action authority. 5
Technical Survey The detailed topographical and technical investigation of known or suspected mined areas identified during the planning phase. Such areas may have been identified during the general mine action assessment or have been otherwise reported. 5
Temporary Marking System A marking system having a stated finite period of use (c.f. permanent marking system). 5
Test Determination of one or more characteristics according to a procedure. [ISO 9000:2000] 5
Test and Evaluation (T&E) Activities associated with the testing of hardware and software. 5
TNT (2, 4, 6 Trinitrotoluene) One of the most widely used military high explosives. TNT is very stable, non-hygroscopic and relatively insensitive to impact, friction, shock and electrostatic energy. TNT is the most widespread type of explosive used in mines and munitions. 5
Tolerable Risk Risk which is accepted in a given context based on current values of society [ISO Guide 51:1999(E)] 5
Trial A series of tests organised in a systematic manner, the individual results of which lead to an overall evaluation of a component, equipment or system. 5
Undesirable Scent Factors related to the environment and that influence the transportation of scent from the mine, the detection of the target scent or the capability of people and dogs to work safely and effectively. Such factors can be wind strength, temperature, humidity, rain, altitude, sun and vegetation 5
United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) The focal point within the UN system for all mine-related activities. 5
Usable Area Areas considered to have no risk or tolerable risk from mines and UXO. 5
User The individual or organization that will operate the equipment. 5
Validation The act of ratification that takes place after a process of verification. 5
Vector Data The use of X., Y coordinates to locate three basic types of landscape features; point, line and areas. 5
Verification Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled. [ISO 9000:2000] 5
Victim An individual who has suffered harm as a result of a mine or UXO accident. 5
Workplace All places where employees need to be or to go by reason of their work and which are under the direct or indirect control of the employer. [ILO R164] 5
Tactical Emergency See Absolute Emergency 1
Lot Size An area (comprising a number of 1.0-sq m units of cleared land) offered for inspection. 5
Non-governmental organization (NGO) Transnational organization of private citizens that maintains a culsultative status with Economic and Social council of the UN. May have common interest in humanitarian assistance activities (development and relief). 8
Multi-Sensor Mine Detector Detection using combinations of technologies such as magnetic, infrared, microwave, chemical, radar and biosensor detectors to correlate their respective accuracy¿s into a more accurate detection resolution.
Quality Management System The combination of an organization¿s quality philosophy, quality assurance and quality control measures. 4
Cost-effectiveness An assessment of the balance between a system¿s performance and its whole life costs. 5
GIS (geographical (or geospatial) information system) An organised collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyse, and display all forms of geographically referenced information. 5
Organizer The person or organization charged with setting up an equipment trial to meet the Sponsor¿s requirements. The organiser is responsible for the design and planning of the trial. 5
Statement of Need (SON) The document that describes the User¿s operational needs. 5
Statement of Tasks and Outputs (STO) the document that articulates the User¿s needs in broad terms, giving the tasks of the equipment andThe key characteristics, with the emphasis on the output required rather than the means of achieving it, so as to enable full consideration of alternative solutions. 5
Priority See Absolute Emergency 1