Citing Your Sources

Quick Reference Purdue OWL Citation Chart (MLA, APA, Chicago)

Citation Basics: this JMU Libraries-produced interactive tutorial introduces citation and attribution (MLA and APA) with an emphasis on using quotations, paraphrasing, and summarizing. You will be prompted to log in using your JMU e-ID and password. If you open this tutorial from off-campus, authenticate (log in with your JMU e-ID and password) either through the Junos Pulse app or through your browser's proxy settings.

Integrating sources (a UWC-produced video overview): addresses intellectual property, summary, paraphrase, quotation, and plagiarism issues.

* In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) published a new edition of the MLA Handbook. Many online resources (including the resources above) will be slow to update their advice (we're working on it). See the MLA section below for more information.


AMA Citation Format

Reference Link

APA Style

APA style is the preferred citation system of the social sciences, although it is often used in other disciplines. The rules are periodically updated by the American Psychological Association. The Association produces an official manual, though there are also many online resources that provide the content.

APA style introduction and resources video (a UWC-produced resource)

APA general formatting advice (a UWC-written resource)

UNC APA tutorial and handbook

Purdue OWL APA central

APA Style Blog: this "official companion" to the APA Manual offers expert advice on the tough or odd questions: "reference citations of every sort, grammar and usage, the publication process, and social media." Here's the Style Blog's FAQ page.

JMU's CheckCite

Quotations with APA

How to effectively integrate quotations into your essay

Short quotations vs. long quotations

JMU's CheckCite

APSA Citation Format

APSA Style

JMU's CheckCite

ASA Citation Format

Quick Guide

JMU's CheckCite

Associated Press Style

Associated Press Style (AP Style) is the set of rules followed by most newspapers and magazines. The AP Stylebook is used by writers and editors for formatting, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, and word choice. The Stylebook also explains newswriting elements such as attribution, source identification, and photography.

AP Stylebook Online  (available to a maximum of ten JMU users at a single time through the JMU Libraries)

Some of the most commonly consulted entries, along with exercises

Key excerpts from the 6th edition of the AP Style Manual

Bluebook legal citations

Bluebook citation format is used by lawyers, judges, and law students.

Overview, explanations, and examples

Clickable list of Bluebook entries

Updates for the 20th Edition of the manual

"Maroonbook: the University of Chicago Manual of Legal Citation": an attempt to simplify the 500-page Bluebook.

Chicago and Turabian

Chicago and Turabian both refer to the same essential formatting and citation guidelines. These styles are often used in the social sciences and for some professional publications, but you may want to ask your professor or supervisor to be sure that it is the preferred style.

Chicago Manual of Style Online (available to JMU users). Non-JMU users can register for a free trial.

Overview and Quick Guide

List of citation entries

A sample Chicago-formatted paper

Turabian Style Quick Guide (note the tab in the middle of the page for switching between bibliography style (literature, history, art) and author-date style (physical, natural, and social sciences)

JMU's CheckCite


Council for Science (formerly Biology) Editors Guide

MLA style

MLA style is the preferred citation system for the humanities. The new (2016) 8th edition of the MLA Handbook addresses concerns about how to cite online sources in all their variety. The guidelines for incorporating and citing quotations, paraphrases, and summaries in your actual text remain unchanged, but new MLA Handbook offers a flexible, one-size-fits-all template for any source you might need to include on your Works Cited page.

* Note: many readily available online resources will be slow to register the MLA's new guidelines. 

Video overview about MLA citation: updated in 2016 to reflect the new 8th edition of the MLA Handbook

Purdue OWL's MLA central: updated in 2016

JMU Libraries handout: samples of works cited and in-text citations: not yet updated

Integrating quotations into your MLA essay: reflects both 7th and 8th edition guidelines

JMU's CheckCite: not yet updated

Quick Reference: Purdue OWL Citation Chart (MLA, APA, Chicago)

Reference Link

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