• Lowercase and always use periods.
6:30 a.m., 10 p.m., noon, midnight
In general, abbreviations should be used only after using the full name, phrase or word as the first reference. Do not include the abbreviation in parentheses following the initial full reference. Spell it out, then use abbreviations in subsequent references if desired.
• Never use an abbreviation that will not be easily understood by the reader.
• Do not spell out junior or senior when they follow a name; always abbreviate and do not set them off with commas.
Jacob T. Bishop Jr.
• Always abbreviate company, corporation, incorporated and limited when they are used after the name of a corporate entity, but do not set them off with commas.
Bishop, McCandish and Holton PC
McCandish and Holton LLC
• Depending on the length of a communication, it is a good idea to occasionally repeat the full name, phrase or word as a first reference at the beginning of new sections, chapters, stories, etc.
Exception: James Madison University is the full proper name of the university. Abbreviated versions such as Madison, the university or JMU may be used on second and subsequent references. These abbreviations are interchangeable and may all be used in the same communication.
• You may abbreviate a year by using an apostrophe in place of the first two numbers. JMU class year designations are usually also set inside parentheses. (MadisonStyle) For print applications, turn on the smart quote setting. Do not use foot marks.
Samantha Hostetter ('99)
Hint: For Web applications, turn off the smart quotes setting, and use foot marks for apostrophes to ensure that characters will not be changed or lost when transferred to the Web.
Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree and master's degree. When used after a name, an academic abbreviation is set off by commas; do not precede a name with a courtesy title for an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation for the degree in the same reference.
Brian Balmages, who earned a bachelor’s degree in music from James Madison University in 1998, received a 2016 distinguished alumni award. The College of Business offers a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in marketing.
• For an annually updated list of JMU graduate degrees, see http://www.jmu.edu/gradcatalog/XX/geninfo/programs.html. Replace XX with the last two digits in the current calendar year.
• For an annually updated list of JMU undergraduate degrees, see http://www.jmu.edu/catalog/XX/info.html. Replace XX with the last two digits in the current calendar year.
Jamie Moo ('99, '01M) is a successful alumna.
For an annually updated academic calendar, see http://www.jmu.edu/gradcatalog/XX/index.shtml. Replace XX with the last two digits in the current calendar year.
For an annually updated list of James Madison University's academic divisions, see http://www.jmu.edu/catalog/XX/colleges.html. Replace XX with the last two digits in the current calendar year.
Anna Bishop ('05) graduated with honors and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English. Sarah Hostetter ('05) graduated with honors and received a Bachelor of Science degree in technical and scientific communication. Jamie Moo ('99, '01M) earned a bachelor's and a master's.
academic policies and procedures
Refer to the JMU online catalog at http://www.jmu.edu/catalog/XX/general/policies.html for information on academic policies and procedures. Replace XX with the last two digits of the current academic year. Keep in mind that the rules of this style guide apply when writing text about information on the site.
Academic programs reside within JMU schools or departments and encompass majors, minors and core classes. They may also include concentrations, cognates or tracks. For an annually updated listing of academic programs, see http://www.jmu.edu/catalog/XX/general/degreeinfo.html. Replace XX with the last two digits of the current academic year.
Academic units are synonymous with academic programs. They reside within JMU schools or departments and encompass majors, minors and core classes. Academic units may also include concentrations, cognates or tracks. When writing for accreditation purposes, use the academic units/programs listed on this Web page: http://www.jmu.edu/catalog/XX/general/degreeinfo.html. Replace XX with the last two digits of the current academic year.
academic year/class year
The established convention and tradition at Madison is to use freshman, sophomore, junior, senior. Do not refer to freshmen as first-year students, sophomores as second-year students, etc., primarily because transfer students are also first-year students, but not freshmen.
Always lowercase; use JMU access card on first reference; JACard or access card thereafter. (MadisonStyle)
Students should bring their JMU access cards to the door.
Present your JACard at the door.
JMU is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award bachelor's, master's, Education Specialist, Doctor of Psychology, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Music Arts degrees.
To see a complete list of accrediting bodies that accredit JMU as well as JMU's institutional, educational and corporate memberships, see the JMU Catalog at http://www.jmu.edu/catalog/XX/info.html. Replace XX with the last two digits of the current academic year.
Use the abbreviations Ave., Blvd., St. only with a numbered address. Spell them out and capitalize when part of a formal street name, without a number.
The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.
The White House is on Pennsylvania Avenue.
• Electronic addresses, urls. While electronic addresses have traditionally been rendered in lower case, many systems are moving toward case sensitive. You need to use the exact electronis address, including capital and lower case as appropriate
• Always use numerals for an address.
9 Morningside Circle
• Spell out and capitalize First through Ninth when used as street names; use numerals for 10th and above.
7 Fifth Ave., 100 21st St.
Hyphenate as a compound modifier
Always use numerals. Ages expressed as adjectives before a noun as substitutes for a noun get hyphens.
A 5-year-old boy.
Get that 5-year-old out of the street
The girl is 5 years old.
all together one
While no longer active as a university theme, "all together one" remains relevant at JMU because it captures a unique Madison spirit that allows people to be themselves while being part of something bigger. President Linwood H. Rose first used the theme in his September 1999 inaugural address. All Together One is now used by the JMU chapter of the student leadership organization, Omicron Delta Kappa. Use of All Together One must follow graphic standards found at University logos and marks.
Alphabetize lists if there is no hierarchical or other significance to the order.
alumnus, alumni; alumna, alumnae
Use alumnus when referring to a man who attended a school; use alumni when referring to a group of men who attended a school; use alumna for similar references to a woman; use alumnae when referring to a similar group of women; use alumni when referring to a group of men and women.
Americans With Disabilities Act
JMU policy dictates that JMU's current official statement on nondiscrimination appear in certain communications. Contact the Office of Equal Opportunity directly for questions about appropriate usage and the most up-to-date language. http://www.jmu.edu/oeo
Use only when it is part of a company's formal name.
Use a comma before "and" and in a series only when "and" occurs as one of the items in the series.
The departments of biology, chemistry and mathematics are part of the College of Science and Mathematics. The departments of biology, chemistry, geology, and environmental studies and mathematics are part of the College of Science and Mathematics.
An event cannot be described as annual until it has been held at least two successive years. Events can begin to be described as annual in their third year.
The third-annual Madison FunFest will start tomorrow.
You may abbreviate a class year by using an apostrophe in place of the first two numbers. JMU class year designations are usually also set inside parentheses. (JMU style) For print applications, turn on the smart quote setting. Do not use a foot mark. For Web applications, turn off the smart quote setting, and use foot marks for apostrophes to ensure that characters will not be changed or lost when transferred to the Web.
Anna Bishop ('05)
JMU is affiliated with the Colonial Athletic Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Division I). For more information, see JMU Sports.