Revision involves re-thinking or re-seeing, and it focuses on "big picture" or "higher order" concerns like ideas, research, purpose, and organization. The work of "revision" often requires a step back: time away from writing, input from a friendly outside reader, or seeing the draft in a new format (e.g., from handwritten to MS Word, from Google Drive to Atavist, or from online to print).

Revising drafts

23 ways to revise a text


Editing is still about making choices, as opposed to correcting errors. On the "big picture/higher order" side of things, editing may involve assessing organization, transitions, and evidence. At the paragraph level, it may involve paragraph structure, the way sources are used and cited, style, and clarity.

Editing v. proofreading

Using objective voice, qualifying claims, and eliminating wordiness (a UWC-produced resource)

Using the Paramedic Method for concise sentences (a UWC-produced handout)

Eliminating weak verbs: find the strong verbs hidden in your writing to cut wordiness and add variety

Make your writing more concise

Steps to eliminate wordiness


Proofreading focuses on identifying and correcting sentence-level errors. "Proof reading" is an old term back from when typesetters had to offer proof that they had accurately read and formatted handwritten texts to the individual who commissioned the printing. The "proof" is the nearly final, as-good-as-it-can-be version of the text, and "proof-reading" then focuses on catching last-minute errors or omissions before the text goes to press.

Identifying and correcting common errors

Proofreading strategies

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