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College of Letters and Sciences

Dr. Jack M. Armistead, Dean
Dr. Mary Lou Wylie, Associate Dean
Dr. James E. Dendinger, Assistant Dean

See page 5 for information regarding curricular changes.


Departments

Biology                           Dr. Martha J. Powell, Head
Chemistry                  Dr. Gary P. Crowther, Acting Head
English                           Dr. David K. Jeffrey, Head
Foreign Languages          Dr. Alexander H.F. de Jonge, Head
  and Literatures
Geology and Geography              Dr. Joseph D. Enedy, Head
History                         Dr. Michael J. Galgano, Head
Mathematics                      Dr. Diane M. Spresser, Head
Philosophy and Religion             Dr. Sallie B. King, Head
Physics                              Dr. H. Kent Moore, Head
Political Science                 Dr. Kay M. Knickrehm, Head
Sociology and Anthropology    Dr. William P. Boyer Jr., Head

The College of Letters and Sciences serves two vital needs of JMU students. First, it offers high-quality programs of specialized study in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, and in several pre-professional and interdisciplinary areas. Secondly, the college provides a challenging array of courses designed to promote lifelong liberal learning by enhancing and broadening cultural awareness; improving skills in mathematics, language and writing; sharpening analytical abilities; intensifying moral and aesthetic sensitivity; and fostering awareness of the contingent nature of knowledge. Linking these two missions is a college-wide commitment to free but rigorous and controlled inquiry into human nature and the physical universe.

Interdisciplinary Programs

In addition to majors and minors in 11 departments, the College of Letters and Sciences offers the following interdisciplinary programs.
African/African-American		Pre-Dentistry
  Studies				Pre-Law
American Studies			Pre-Medicine
Asian Studies				Pre-Pharmacy
Biochemistry				Pre-Physical Therapy
Criminal Justice			Pre-Theology
Environmental Studies			Pre-Veterinary
Interdisciplinary Social		Public Administration
  Science				Russian Studies
International Affairs			Urban and Regional
Latin American Studies			  Studies
Medical Technology			Women's Studies

Minor in African/
African-American Studies

The minor in African/African-American Studies is designed to serve students who wish to broaden their perspectives by enhancing their acquaintance and understanding of the peoples, cultures and institutions of Africa and the African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere. Since the program is interdisciplinary, courses taken to fulfill program requirements are drawn from the offerings of several departments.

The minimum requirement for a minor in African/African-American Studies is 18 hours with a maximum of nine hours in any one discipline. Courses credited to the minor may not be double-counted in fulfillment of liberal studies and/or major requirements. Students are required to successfully complete at least six hours from courses in which the content is focused on Africa:


                                                  Credit
                                                   Hours
ANTH/SOCI/SOWK 348. Third World Societies              3
ARTH 301. African Art                                  3
ARTH 489. Topics in Art and Art History [1]            3
FL 266. African Literature of the 20th Century         3
GEOG 335. Geography of Africa                          3
HIST 263. Africa                                       3
HIST 470. Modern Africa                                3
HIST 489. Selected Topics in World History [1]         3
LS 260. The West African Experience                    3
POSC 340. Political Development in the Third           3
  World
________
Notes:
[1]
Course topic and content must focus on Africa and be approved by the program director(s).
In addition, students are required to complete at least six hours from courses in which the content focuses on the cultures and experiences of African descendants in the New World - the Diaspora:

                                                  Credit
                                                   Hours
ANTH/SOCI 236. Race and Ethnic Relations               3
ENG 260. Survey of African-American Literature         3
ENG 360. Major Black Writers: Fiction                  3
ENG 361. Major Black Writers: Poetry                   3
ENG 412. Special Topic Seminar [1]                     3
ENG 421. Studies in Caribbean Literature               3
HIST 355. Afro-American History to 1865                3
HIST 356. Afro-American History Since 1865             3
HIST 439. Selected Topics in U.S. History [1]          3
HIST 489. Selected Topics in World History [1]         3
MUS 356. History of Jazz in America                    3
POSC 326. Civil Rights                                 3
REL 300A. African-American Religion                    3
________
Notes:
[1]
Course topic and content must focus on African descendants in the Western Hemisphere and be approved by the program director(s).
The remaining six hours may be selected from either list and/or include no more than three hours selected from the following courses when the topic of the special study is within the area of African/ African-American Studies and is approved by the program director(s).
ANTH 490. Special Studies in Anthropology
FL 490. Special Studies in Foreign Languages
GEOG 490. Special Studies in Geography
HIST 490. Special Studies in History
POSC 490. Special Studies in Political Science
SOCI 490. Special Studies in Sociology
Students are also encouraged to participate in travel/study programs to Africa, the Caribbean, and other areas relevant to the minor. Students who want to earn one to three credit hours through participation in an accredited travel/study program are encouraged to do so with the prior approval of the program director(s).

For further information on the African/African-American minor, students should contact Dr. David Owusu-Ansah, Department of History, Jackson Hall, Room 222, or Dr. Jacqueline B. Walker, Department of History, Jackson Hall, Room 212

Minor in American Studies

The minor in American studies is based on the desirability of developing a coordinated understanding of American civilization, past and present, acquired through selected courses offered by traditional departments and special courses offered by the program itself. Focus in humanistic subjects and the social sciences will provide the student with the means of exploring the interrelationships among diverse aspects of our culture and changing patterns of ideas and values.

The minor program in American studies is open to all undergraduate students at JMU. The requirement is the successful completion of 24 hours drawn from the list of courses that follow. Three of the 24 hours must consist of AMST 250, Introduction to American Studies. No more than six of the 24 hours may come from 100- or 200-level courses. No more than nine hours in any one discipline is permitted. Sections oriented toward the needs of the students taking part in the program will be designated in the 100- or 200-level courses. (Program co-chairpersons will maintain such a list.) Students should consult co-chairpersons about new courses and the appropriateness of topics in special studies/special topics courses.

Further information may be secured from Dr. Sidney Bland, Department of History, Jackson Hall, Room 215, or from Dr. Cameron Nickels, Department of English, Keezell Hall, Room 409.

American Studies Courses

(Courses other than those listed may be approved on a case-by-case basis.)

American Studies

AMST 250. Introduction to American Studies [2]
AMST 490. Special Studies in American Studies

Anthropology

ANTH 299. Prehistoric and Pioneer Virginia
ANTH 312. North American Indians
ANTH 327. North American Prehistory
ANTH 368. Modern American Culture
ANTH 382. Cultures of Appalachia
ANTH 490. Special Studies in Anthropology [1]

Art

ARTH 409. American Art
ARTH 411. American Art Since 1945
ART/ARTH 490. Independent Studies in Art or Art History [1]
ARTH 494. Introduction to Museum Work 
  (cross-listed with history)
ART/ARTH 495. Internship in Art or Art History [1]

Communication

MCOM 200. Foundations of Mass Communication
MCOM 205. Mass Communication and Society
MCOM 305. Topics in Mass Communication [1]
MCOM 330. History of American Journalism
MCOM 490. Special Studies in Mass Communication [1]
MCOM 498. Senior Seminar in Mass Communication
SCOM 313. Topics in Human Communication [1]
SCOM 346. Free Speech in America
SCOM 452. Political Communication
SCOM 490. Special Studies in Speech Communication [1]

Economics

ECON 210. Economic History of the United States
ECON 306. The Economics of Women and 
  the Family
ECON 315. Economics of Industrial Relations
ECON 405. Political Economy
ECON 460. Human Resources
ECON 490. Special Studies in Economics [1]

English

ENG 247-248. Survey of American Literature [2]
ENG 260. Survey of African-American Literature
ENG 302. Special Topics in Literature and Language [1]
ENG 341. Early American Literature
ENG 345. American Romanticism 1820-1865
ENG 351. American Realism and Naturalism to 1914
ENG 352. The American Novel to 1914
ENG 353. The Modern American Novel
ENG 354. Contemporary American Fiction
ENG 355. Southern Literature
ENG 360. Major Black Writers: Fiction
ENG 361. Major Black Writers: Poetry
ENG 410. Major British or American Authors [1]
ENG 412. Special Topic Seminar [1]
ENG 490. Special Studies in English

Geography

GEOG 136. Geography of North America

History

HIST 233-234. U.S. History [2]
HIST 300. U.S. Military History
HIST 310. American Business History
HIST 320. Women in U.S. History
HIST 323. The Old South
HIST 330. U.S. Diplomatic History
HIST 340. Internship in History
HIST 350. Virginia
HIST 353. Trans-Mississippi West
HIST 355-356. Afro-American History
HIST 402. Workshop in Colonial American Life
HIST 411. Colonial America
HIST 415. The Age of James Madison
HIST 420. U.S. History 1763-1800
HIST 425. Civil War and Reconstruction
HIST 430. The Gilded Age: U.S. History, 1877-1901
HIST 431. Reform, World War and Prosperity: 
  U.S. History, 1901-1929
HIST 432. Depression, War and Cold War: 
  U.S. History, 1929-1961
HIST 433. Reform, Upheaval and Reaction: 
  U.S. History Since 1961
HIST 439. Selected Topics in American History [1]
HIST 445. Latin America and the United States
HIST 490. Special Studies in History [1]
HIST 494. Introduction to Museum Work

Music

MUI 221. Survey of the Music Industry
MUS 203. Music in America
MUS 356. History of Jazz in America

Philosophy

PHIL 370. American Philosophy
PHIL 490. Special Studies in Philosophy [1]

Political Science

POSC 225. U.S. Government [2]
POSC 330. American Political Thought
POSC 359. State and Local Government
POSC 368. Interest Groups and Public Policy
POSC 369. Political Parties and Elections
POSC 370. U.S. Foreign Policy
POSC 405. American Political System
POSC 450. Contemporary Problems in American Government
POSC 490. Special Studies in Political Science [1]

Religion

REL 490. Special Studies in Religion [1]

Social Work

FAM 133. The Contemporary Family
SOWK 287. Introduction to Social Work
SOWK 372. Social Work Practice with the Aged

Sociology

SOCI 101. Introductory Sociology [2]
SOCI 302. Business in American Society
SOCI 321. Politics in Society
SOCI 360. Modern Social Movements
SOCI 368. Modern American Culture
SOCI 490. Special Studies in Sociology [1]

Theater and Dance

THEA 382. Contemporary Theater
THEA 440. Seminar in Theater [1]
THEA 485. American Theater History
________
Notes:
[1]
When the topic is applicable to American studies.
[2]
Also acceptable for liberal studies credit.

Minor in Asian Studies

The purpose of this interdisciplinary program is to broaden the students' perspective by enhancing their understanding and appreciation of Asian culture and institutions. This program combines the offerings of several departments, such as art, economics, history, foreign languages, political science, religion, and sociology and anthropology.

The minimum requirement for a minor in Asian studies is 18 credit hours. These 18 hours must include six hours of HIST 273, Asia to 1600, and HIST 274, Modern Asia. With the approval of the adviser to the program seven to eight hours of either Chinese or Japanese language may be included in the minor.

For further information on the Asian studies minor, students should contact Dr. Chong-kun Yoon, Department of History, Jackson Hall, Room 220.


                                                  Credit
Minor Requirements                                 Hours
HIST 273. Asia to 1600 [1]                             3
HIST 274. Modern Asia [1]                              3
Choose from the following:                            12
  ANTH 380. Chinese and Japanese Society and Culture (three credits)
  ARTH 302. Far Eastern Art (three credits)
  CHIN 101. Elementary Chinese (four credits)
  CHIN 102. Elementary Chinese (four credits)
  CHIN 231-232. Intermediate Chinese 
    (six credits)
  CHIN 265. Chinese Literature in Translation 
    (three credits) [1]
  ECON 312. Comparative Economic Systems 
    (three credits)
  FL 490. Elementary Japanese (four credits)
  FL 490I. Intermediate Japanese (three credits)
  GEOG 349. Geography of East Asia (three credits)
  HIST 371. India (three credits)
  HIST 460. Modern Japan (three credits)
  HIST 480. Modern China (three credits)
  POSC 320. Radical Political Theory Since 
    1844 (three credits)
  POSC 339. Politics of Communist and Post-Communist Systems (three credits)
  POSC 340. Political Development in the Third 
    World (three credits)
  POSC 355. East Asian Politics (three credits)
  REL 300. Religion and the Contemporary World 
    - Asian Religion (three credits) [1]
  REL 380-A. Hinduism and Buddhism 
    (three credits)
  REL 380-B. Religions of China and Japan 
    (three credits)
                                                    ____
                                                      18
________
Notes:
[1]
Also acceptable for liberal studies credit.

Minor in Biochemistry

The interdisciplinary minor in biochemistry provides a coordinated study of biochemical compounds and their functions at the cellular and subcellular levels. The minimum requirement for a minor in biochemistry is 19-20 credit hours.

Contact Dr. William Voige, Department of Chemistry, Miller Hall, Room 205, or Dr. N. E. Garrison, Department of Biology, Burruss Hall, Room 304, for further information.

The following are prerequisites for entry into the biochemistry minor program:

BIO 220. Cell Biology
CHEM 131-132. General Chemistry I-II
CHEM 341-342. Organic Chemistry including
Choose from the following:
  CHEM 346L. Organic Chemistry Laboratory
  CHEM 387L-388L. Integrated Laboratory

                                                  Credit
Minor Requirements                                 Hours
CHEM 361. Biochemistry I                               3
CHEM 362. Biochemistry II                              3
CHEM 366L. Biochemistry Laboratory                     2
BIO 380. General Microbiology                          4
BIO 480. Molecular Biology                             4
Choose from the following:                           3-4
  Biology majors choose one of the following:
    CHEM 331. Physical Chemistry including 
      CHEM 336L. Physical Chemistry Laboratory 
      (four credits)
    CHEM 351. Analytical Chemistry (four credits)
    CHEM 440. Intermediate Organic Chemistry 
      (three credits)
    CHEM 450. Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry 
      including CHEM 450L. Nuclear and 
      Radiation Chemistry Laboratory 
      (four credits)
  Chemistry majors choose one of the following:
    BIO 370. Vertebrate Physiology (four credits)
    BIO 442. Basic Immunology (three credits)
    BIO 444. Virology (three credits)
    BIO 455. Physiology of Vascular Plants 
      (four credits)
                                                    ____
                                                   19-20

Minor in Criminal Justice

The interdisciplinary minor in criminal justice is designed for students who are preparing for careers in law enforcement, corrections or judicial administration at various governmental levels, either directly upon graduation or after further graduate training in the field.

The requirement for a minor in criminal justice is 24 credit hours of courses including:


                                                  Credit
Minor Requirements                                 Hours
POSC 215. Introduction to Criminal Justice             3
POSC 302. Criminal Procedure                           3
POSC 327. Criminal Law                                 3
PSYC 335. Abnormal Psychology                          3
SOCI 325. Criminology                                  3
Electives (choose three of the following):             9
  POSC 326. Civil Rights
  POSC 410. Administration in Criminal Justice
  POSC 415. Criminal Investigation
  POSC 417. Evidence
  SOCI 327. Juvenile Delinquency
  SOCI 330. Corrections
                                                    ____
                                                      24
Students completing the minor are also encouraged to take an internship, field experience or field placement with a law enforcement, criminal court or corrections agency.

For further information and advisement regarding the criminal justice minor, students should contact Marion T. Doss, Maury Hall, Room 214, Department of Political Science.

Minor in Environmental Studies

The environmental studies minor is designed for students who desire a deeper understanding of the global environment. In addition to satisfying the B.A. or B.S. requirements of their chosen major, the following conditions will form the foundation for the minor.

Nineteen credit hours are required of which 18 must be course work. The remaining one credit hour will be a seminar that must be taken at least once by all students enrolled in the minor.


                                                  Credit
                                                   Hours
Natural sciences (choose from the following):          8
  BIO 325D. Environment and Information 
    (two-three credits)
  BIO 351. Introduction to Ecology (three credits)
  BIO 435. Insect Ecology (four credits)
  BIO 451. Ecological Systems (four credits)
  GEOL 310A-D. Environmental Impact 
    (two-three credits)
  GEOL 320. Meteorology (three credits)
  GEOL 340. Soils and Land Use (three credits)
  GEOL 355. Geochemistry of Natural Waters 
    (three credits)
  GEOL 450. Geology Seminar (one credit)
Social science (choose from the following):            8
  ANTH 355. Culture and Ecology (three credits)
  ECON 305. Environmental Economics 
    (three credits)
  ECON 340. Economics of Natural Resources 
    (three credits)
  GEOG 240. Geography and Resource Use 
    (three credits)
  GEOG 295. Population Geography 
    (three credits)
  GEOG 310A-D. Environmental Impact 
    (two-three credits)
  GEOG 415. Climatology (three credits)
  HTH 352. Environmental Health 
    (three credits)
  SOCI 352. Introduction to Population Studies 
    (three credits)
  REL 300R. Environmental Ethics (three credits)
A student may not receive dual credit for a course that is required and applied to both the major and minor.

Environmental research topics are encouraged through participation in the individual research options of the various departments involved. Oral presentations of this research in the environmental studies seminar is encouraged.

For information concerning the environmental studies minor contact Dr. Stan Ulanski, Department of Geology and Geography, Miller Hall, Room 234.

Major in Interdisciplinary
Social Science

The major in interdisciplinary social science is designed for students who desire a broad, yet integrated education in the social sciences as preparation for careers in government, business, law, teaching or pre-professional training in one of the social sciences.

Students majoring in interdisciplinary social science must complete two sets of requirements: a core of required social science courses consisting of 15-16 hours, and a minor/cognate varying from 24 to 33 hours depending on the minor/cognate selected.

The following disciplines are included in this major: anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology and sociology. Students will select both their minor and their cognate field from these disciplines.

Students seeking teacher licensure must complete the secondary education requirements. Students may elect either the Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts degree with this major.


                                                  Credit
Core Requirements                                  Hours
SOSC/PHIL 400. Philosophical Foundations               3
  of Social Science (senior year)
SOSC 450. Interdisciplinary Perspectives               3
  on Social Issues (senior year)
Methods requirements (choose one):                   3-4
  MATH 220. Elementary Statistics 
    (three credits)
  PSYC 200. Psychological Statistics 
    (four credits)
Foundations requirements (choose two): [1]             6
  ANTH 195. Cultural Anthropology and Linquistics
  ECON 131. Principles of Economics (Micro)
  ECON 132. Principles of Economics (Macro)
  GEOG 120. Introduction to World Geography
  GEOG 280. Introduction to Cultural Geography
  POSC 225. U.S. Government
  POSC 230. International Relations
  POSC 240. Comparative Politics
  PSYC 101. General Psychology I
  PSYC 102. General Psychology II
  PSYC 160. Life Span Human Development
  SOCI 101. Introductory Sociology
  SOCI 102. Social Problems
________
Notes:
[1]
Two courses from different disciplines and in disciplines other than those selected for liberal studies social science.

Minor/Cognate Requirements

Students will complete their social science major by selecting a minor in one of the social sciences and a cognate concentration consisting of nine credit hours at the 300 level or above in one other social science.

Anthropology

The anthropology minor requires 18 hours including ANTH 195, Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics; and ANTH 196, Physical Anthropology and Archeology.

Economics

The minor in economics requires 18 hours in economics including ECON 131, Principles of Economics (Micro) and ECON 132, Principles of Economics (Macro), and at least six hours of either 300- or 400-level economics courses.

Geography

The geography minor consists of 18 hours approved by the student's geography adviser.

History

Students selecting a history minor must complete 24 credit hours including HIST 233, United States to 1877, and HIST 234, United States Since 1877, with six of the remaining 18 hours in courses outside the field of U.S. history. These 24 hours must be in addition to history courses taken for liberal studies credit.

Political Science

A minor in political science requires 18 hours of approved political science or public administration courses.

Psychology

The psychology minor is 21 hours and must include PSYC 101-102, General Psychology I-II, with a minimum of nine hours at the 300 or 400 levels. All psychology courses applied to the minor must carry a grade of "C" or better.

Sociology

A sociology minor is 18 hours and must include
SOCI 101. Introductory Sociology
Choose two of the following:
  SOCI 380. Critical Analysis
  SOCI 382. Interpretive Analysis
  SOCI 384. Naturalistic Analysis
Social science courses taken for foundations credit may be applied to the minor, but no courses taken for liberal studies credit may be applied.

Students must meet the requirements for the minors and cognates as these are listed in the catalog under the appropriate departments. Please consult the catalog to determine the requirements and course prerequisites for the minor/cognate that is selected.

Example 1: Minor/Cognate
in History and Political Science


                                                  Credit
History Minor                                      Hours
HIST 233. United States to 1877                        3
HIST 234. United States since 1877                     3
Six additional history courses with at least          18
  six hours outside U.S. history                                  
                                                    ____
                                                      24

                                                  Credit
Political Science Cognate                          Hours
Political science courses (above 300 level)            9

Example 2: Minor/Cognate
in Anthropology and Economics


                                                  Credit
Anthropology Minor                                 Hours
ANTH 195. Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics        3
ANTH 196. Physical Anthropology and Archeology         3
Anthropology electives                                12
                                                    ____
                                                      18

                                                  Credit
Economics Cognate                                  Hours
Economics courses (above 300 level)                    9
Students may seek dual majors in interdisciplinary social science and one of the social sciences included within it. These students are encouraged to consult regularly with both advisers. A minor is not offered in interdisciplinary social science. Students seeking information concerning this major should contact the head of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology.

Interdisciplinary Social
Science Teaching Option

The teaching track of the major in interdisciplinary social science is designed for students who desire to complete the major and the requirements for teacher licensure in social studies without exceeding the minimum requirements for graduation. Students may choose other tracks or options in the major and meet the requirements for teacher licensure by taking the additional courses specified. Students may pursue a B.S. or B.A. degree.

Social Studies Endorsement
Requirements as Part of Liberal Studies


                                                  Credit
                                                   Hours
HIST 101. World Civilization to 1650                   3
HIST 102. World Civilization Since 1650                3
POSC 110. Introduction to Political Science            3
PSYC 160. Life Span Human Development                  3
                                                    ____
                                                      12

                                                  Credit
Core Requirements                                  Hours
SOSC/PHIL 400. Philosophical Foundations               3
  of Social Science
SOSC 450. Interdisciplinary Perspectives               3
  on Social Issues
Methods requirement (choose one):                    3-4
  MATH 220. Elementary Statistics (three credits)
  PSYC 200. Psychology Statistics (four credits)
Foundations requirements:  6
  GEOG 120. Introduction to World Geography
  POSC 225. U.S. Government
                                                    ____
                                                   15-16

                                                  Credit
Other Major Requirements                           Hours
ECON 131. Principles of Economics (Micro)              3
ECON 132. Principles of Economics (Macro)              3
Choose one of the following:                           3
  ECON 312. Comparative Economic Systems
  ECON 365. Economic Development
GEOG 136. Geography of North America                   3
GEOG 280. Cultural Geography                           3
HIST 233. U.S. History to 1877                         3
HIST 234. U.S. History Since 1877                      3
U.S. history elective (400 level)                      3
Non-U.S., non-European history elective                3
  (300 or 400 level)
POSC 359. State and Local Government                   3
Political science elective                             3
  (300 level or above)
                                                    ____
                                                      33

Initial Secondary Teaching
License Requirements


                                                  Credit
                                                   Hours
EDUC 360. Foundations of American Education            3
  (junior year)
EDUC 370. Instructional Technology (junior year)       3
EDUC 410. Multicultural Education (senior year)        1
EDUC 416. School Discipline and Classroom              1
  Management (senior year)
HTH 370. The School Health Program                     2
  (any appropriate time)
PSYC 270. Psychology for Teachers of the               3
  Pre-adolescent and Adolescent Child 
  (sophomore year) [1]
READ 414. Reading and Writing in the Content           1
  Areas (senior year)
SEED 371H. Secondary Social Studies Methods            3
  (normally in the first semester of the 
  senior year)
SEED 381. Field Experiences (Practicum) in             3
  Secondary Education (normally in the first 
  semester of the senior year)
SEED 480. Student Teaching (senior year)              12
SPED 402. Teaching Mildly Disabled Students            1
  in Regular Classes (senior year)
                                                    ____
                                                      33
________
Notes:
[1]
PSYC 160 is a prerequisite for PSYC 270.
Students seeking the major in interdisciplinary social science and teacher licensure will be encouraged to consult regularly with the adviser in the major and with the adviser in education.

Interdisciplinary Courses
in Liberal Studies

Interdisciplinary courses in liberal studies are designed to offer the student areas of interest that involve two or more disciplines in the humanities and the arts. Some of these courses are team-taught; others reflect the combined interest of at least two disciplines in a specific problem.

International Liberal Studies

International liberal studies (ILS) courses are courses coordinated by JMU faculty as part of each of the four programs set in London, Florence, Paris or Salamanca, Spain. These courses have experimental, cultural, literary and historical components involving the student in an appreciation of the richness in the area in which they are pursuing other courses in institutions of higher education. (See Studies Abroad courses, pages 296-297).

Major in International Affairs

The major in international affairs provides an interdisciplinary understanding of foreign cultures and societies, the dynamics of world politics, and how other nations perceive the world and why they act the way they do. It is a liberal arts program, combining interdisciplinary, intercultural and multilingual education. Courses are drawn from a broad variety of traditional liberal studies disciplines. The minors in Asian, Latin American and Russian studies can be incorporated in the major, as can the Studies Abroad programs. The international affairs major is a B.A. degree program.

Program for Major in International Affairs


                                                  Credit
Core Courses                                       Hours
ECON 131. Principles of Economics (Micro)              3
ECON 132. Principles of Economics (Macro)              3
ECON 312. Comparative Economic Systems                 3
HIST 330. U.S. Diplomatic History                      3
POSC 230. International Relations                      3
POSC 240. Comparative Politics                         3
POSC 370. U.S. Foreign Policy                          3
POSC 489. Seminar in International Affairs             3
Choose one of the following:                           3
  FR 300. French Conversation and Composition
  GER 300. German Conversation and Composition
  RUS 300. Russian Conversation and Composition
  SPAN 300. Spanish Conversation and 
    Composition
Choose one of the following:                           3
  FR 308. Contemporary French Civilization
  GER 308. German Civilization Since 1800
  RUS 308. Introduction to Russian Civilization
  SPAN 308. Latin American Civilization

Area Requirements

Students who major in international affairs are expected to take five courses from this section. The courses must be drawn from at least three disciplines (one of which must be history) and be concentrated in the same geographical area: Western Europe, Latin America, Asia, Russia, or Africa and the Middle East.

The disciplines are political science, history, geography, economics and culture.

Functional Requirements

Students are expected to take three courses from this section. The courses must be drawn from at least two disciplines. Courses in this section are not truly area studies courses but are valuable and necessary components to an international affairs major. Their uniting feature is their comparative focus or thematic nature.

The categories are economics, geography and political science and cross culture.

Further information regarding the major and specific course offerings can be obtained from the Department of Political Science, Maury Hall.

Minor in Latin American Studies

This concentration is designed for students who wish to acquire a deeper understanding of Latin America. In addition to meeting the B.A. degree language requirement in Spanish, the Latin American studies minor consists of a minimum of 18 hours (of which six must include HIST 267-268) selected from the courses listed. Students should select courses in at least two disciplines other than the major and are encouraged to explore the possibility of studying in a Latin American country for a semester or summer session.

For additional information, contact Dr. Frank Gerome, Department of History, Jackson Hall, Room 211.


                                                  Credit
Minor Requirements                                 Hours
HIST 267. History of Latin America                     3
HIST 268. Contemporary Latin America                   3
Choose from the following:                            12
  ANTH 325. Aztec, Maya and Their Predecessors
  ANTH 385. Peoples and Cultures of Latin America
  ECON 312. Comparative Economic Systems
  ECON 365. Economic Development
  ECON 370. International Trade and Trade Policies
  ECON 372. International Finance and Payments
  GEOG 337. Geography of Latin America
  HIST 445. Latin America and the United States
  HIST 446. Mexico, Central America and the 
    Caribbean
  HIST 447. South America
  POSC 350. Latin American Politics
  SOCI/ANTH/SOWK 348. Third World Societies
  SOCI 352. Introduction to Population Studies
  SPAN 300. Spanish Conversation and Composition
  SPAN 308. Latin American Civilization
  SPAN 315. Spanish Phonetics
  SPAN 327. Survey of Spanish-American Literature
  SPAN 330. Business Spanish
  SPAN 400. Advanced Conversation
  SPAN 415. The Spanish-American Novel
Choose one of the following:
  ANTH 490. Special Studies in Anthropology
  ECON 490. Special Studies in Economics
  FL 490. Special Studies in Foreign Languages 
    (Spanish) [1]
  GEOG 490. Special Studies in Geography
  HIST 490. Special Studies in History
  POSC 490. Special Studies in Political Science
  SOCI 490. Special Studies in Sociology  
                                                    ____
                                                      18
________
Notes:
[1]
These courses are taught in the various languages offered by the department.

Pre-Law Program

Students who plan to apply to law school may select their major from a wide range of fields, depending upon their interests. The scope of the law is broad and offers room for individuals of varied educational and intellectual backgrounds. The students' total programs should provide them with broad informational and cultural preparation and should help them in developing their reasoning abilities.

Certain courses are of value as preparation for legal study. These include courses in communication, including composition, language and speech, which enable students to express themselves well; in the liberal arts, including work in the humanities and social sciences, which help them appreciate and perform effectively in their culture and society; in logic, mathematics and the natural sciences, which develop skills of fact discrimination, analysis and synthesis; and in accounting.

Students interested in the pre-law program should contact Dr. Mary Lou Wylie, associate dean, College of Letters and Sciences. Students may also contact Dr. Arthur J. Hamilton, Department of Finance and Business Law. Students may join the Pre-Legal Society to participate in law-related activities.

Pre-Theology Program

The pre-theology program is designed for students who plan to enter professional schools of religion after graduation from the university (divinity schools, seminaries, theological schools, etc.). These professional schools prepare the student for a variety of careers, such as ministry, religious education, religious youth work and others. The program at JMU will provide excellent preparation not only for acceptance at these schools but also for enriched professional training.

A student in this program may major in any field he or she chooses, although the American Association for Theological Schools recommends substantial preprofessional training in philosophy and religion. This professional accrediting agency also recommends a broad background in English language and literature; history (American and European); both the physical and the life sciences; the social sciences (particularly psychology, anthropology and sociology); the fine arts; biblical and modern languages; and, of course, religion, including the Bible, history of religious traditions and theology.

Students interested in the pre-theology program should contact Dr. William W. Thomas, professor of philosophy and religion, for more information and a suggested program of study. Students are invited to join the Society of Philosophy and Religion and participate in its activities. This program is non-denominational and non-sectarian.

Public Administration

JMU offers both a major and a minor program in public administration. Information about these programs is listed under the Department of Political Science.

Minor in Russian Studies

This minor is designed for students who wish to acquire a deeper understanding of the former Soviet Union. The minimum requirement for a minor in Russian studies is 18 hours, which may be drawn from the following courses:
GEOG 348. Geography of the U.S.S.R.
HIST 385. Russia to 1855
HIST 386. Russia Since 1855
HIST 475. Soviet Russia
POSC 337. Russian Political System
POSC 338. Russian Foreign Policy
POSC 339. Politics of Communist and Post-
  Communist Systems
RUS 265-266. Russian Literature in Translation
RUS 300. Russian Conversation and Composition
RUS 308. Introduction to Russian Civilization
RUS 315. Russian Phonetics
RUS 320. Advanced Russian Grammar
RUS 405. Russian Literature of the 19th Century
RUS 426. Russian Literature of the 20th Century
Choose one of the following:
  ECON 490. Special Studies in Economics
  FL 490. Special Studies in Foreign Languages 
    (Russian) [1]
  GEOG 490. Special Studies in Geography
  HIST 490. Special Studies in History
  POSC 490. Special Studies in Political Science
  SOCI 490. Special Studies in Sociology
________
Notes:
[1]
These courses are taught in the various languages offered by the department.
With the approval of the adviser to the program, six to eight hours of Russian language may be included in the minor. For further information concerning this program contact Dr. Mary Louise Loe, Department of History, or Dr. Elizabeth B. Neatrour, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures.

Minor in Urban and Regional Studies

The minor in urban and regional studies is designed for students who are preparing for careers or graduate training in the field of government.

While satisfying the B.A. or B.S. requirements of their chosen major, students may complement that major with a minor in urban and regional studies. The minor requires 24 hours.


                                                  Credit
                                                   Hours
ECON 475. Regional Economics                           3
GEOG 410. Urban Geography                              3
POSC 360. Urban Politics                               3
PUAD 425. Regional Planning and Organization           3
SOCI 265. Sociology of the Community                   3
Choose from the following: [1]                         9
  ECON 326. Public Finance (three credits)
  ECON 340. Economics of Natural Resources 
    (three credits)
  FIN 210. Principles of Real Estate (three credits)
  GEOG 315. Field Studies (three credits)
  GEOL/GEOG 310A-D. Environmental Impact 
    (two-three credits)
  GEOL 340. Soil and Land Use (three credits)
  POSC 359. State and Local Government (three credits)
  POSC 495. Internship in Political Science 
    (three or six credits)
  SOCI 352. Introduction to Population Studies
     (three credits)
  SOCI 361. Bureaucracy and Society (three credits)
                                                    ____
                                                      24
________
Notes:
[1]
Must be in a discipline other than the student's major.
Information and preliminary advising are available by contacting Dr. Joseph Enedy, Department of Geology and Geography, Miller Hall, Room 213.

Minor in Women's Studies

The women's studies minor is an 18-credit-hour interdisciplinary program which explores the scholarship related to gender and equity issues as they affect women. This minor includes two required courses.
WMST 200, Introduction to Women's Studies
WMST 400. Issues and Research in Women's Studies
The remainder of the program is selected from a designated list of classes representing a number of academic fields. For additional information about the women's studies minor program see Dr. Violet Allain, coordinator, Education Building, Room 326.

Allied Health Programs and Health Related Pre-professional Programs

JMU offers the following allied health programs and health related pre-professional programs.

Program                                      Department
Communication Sciences           Communication Sciences
  and Disorders [1]
Dietetics [1]                           Health Sciences
Health (pre-public) [1]                 Health Sciences
Medical Technology                              Biology
Pre-Dentistry                                   Biology
Pre-Medicine                                    Biology
Pre-Pharmacy                                   Chemisty
Pre-Physical Therapy                            Biology
________
Notes:
[1]
See departmental section in this catalog.

Major in Medical Technology

Adjunct Faculty

Augusta Medical Center

Wayne P. Jessee, M.D., Medical Director

Bernadette Bekkin, M.T. (ASCP), Program Director

The Fairfax Hospital

C. Barrie Cook, M.D., Medical Director

Amy Shoemaker, M.T., (ASCP), Program Director

Roanoke Memorial Hospital

Samuel F. Vance, M.D., Medical Director

Janet Hiler, B.S., M.T. (ASCP), Program Director

Rockingham Memorial Hospital

Warren D. Bannister, M.D., Medical Director

Randall Vandevander, M.T. (ASCP),

Program Director

University of Virginia Medical Center

Michael R. Wills, M.D., Ph.D., Medical Director

Cheryl V. Leitch, M.T. (ASCP), S.H., Program Director

This program leads to the Bachelor of Science degree with a major in medical technology. It is offered cooperatively with schools of medical technology on the approved list of the Council of Medical Education and Hospitals of the American Medical Association, and the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences.

The degree is conferred by James Madison University upon the successful completion of the following three-year program at the university and the one calendar year clinical program at an approved school of medical technology. Upon completion of the program, the student is eligible for national examinations given by the Board of Registry of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists and the National Certification Agency.

Students interested in a major in medical technology should consult the biology department office or Dr. Beverly Silver, Department of Biology.

Major in Medical Technology (B.S. Degree)


                                                  Credit
Freshman Year [1]                                  Hours
BIO 120. General Zoology (Spring)                      4
CHEM 131-132. General Chemistry with Laboratories      8
ENG 101-102. Reading and Composition                   6
MATH 155 or 156. Functions and Probability             3
MATH 220. Elementary Statistics                        3
Liberal studies course                                 3
Physical education/dance course                        2
                                                    ____
                                                      29

                                                  Credit
Sophomore Year [1]                                 Hours
BIO 220. Cell Biology (Spring)                         3
BIO 270. Human Physiology (Spring)                     3
BIO 290. Human Anatomy (Fall)                          4
CHEM 341-342-346L. Organic Chemistry                   8
Liberal studies courses                            12-14
Electives                                            0-2
                                                    ____
                                                      32

                                                  Credit
Junior Year [1]                                    Hours
BIO 380. General Microbiology (Fall)                   4
BIO 442. Basic Immunology (Spring)                     3
MGT 300. Management Principles                         3
PHYS 115. Physics as Inquiry                           3
Liberal studies courses                                9
Electives                                             10
                                                    ____
                                                      32
________
Notes:
[1]
There may be some variability in individual schedules.

Senior Year

The senior year of this program consists of 12 months at an affiliated school of medical technology approved by the American Medical Association and the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences.

To enter a school of medical technology, a separate application must be made by the student. A list of affiliated schools of medical technology is on file in the office of the medical technology adviser.

Premedical Studies Program

The Office of Premedical Studies has been established as the resource and advisory center for the JMU premedical studies program. This office exists to help pre-professional health (primarily premedical, predental and pre-veterinary science) students facilitate career-oriented endeavors and realize their aspirations by providing specific information, advice and assistance. The office is located in Burruss Hall, Room 242.

The university has an excellent reputation for preparing students for admission to medical, dental, veterinary and other schools of professional health. These schools are most concerned with the overall scope and quality of the undergraduate record, and it is therefore important that students choose an undergraduate area of study that interests them. This major should establish a foundation of knowledge, which will support career alternatives.

Medical and dental schools require at least three years of college preparation and prefer that students complete a program leading to a bachelor's degree. Absolute admission requirements are limited in order to provide for necessary flexibility in the undergraduate program. The course requirements of most medical/dental schools are similar and usually specify minimum credit in biology, chemistry and physics which can be met by completion of the following courses:

BIO 120. General Zoology
BIO 220. Cell Biology
BIO 370. Vertebrate Physiology
CHEM 131-132. General Chemistry with Laboratories
CHEM 341-342. Organic Chemistry with Laboratory
PHYS 130-135. General Physics with Laboratory
Minimum requirements in mathematics vary considerably from school to school. Some require calculus (MATH 235-236 or MATH 205-206) and others recommend it. Note that MATH 135 (or equivalent) is a prerequisite for PHYS 130. A course in statistics (MATH 220) is recommended. Most preprofessional health students take mathematics courses, required or not, that will allow them to acquire the knowledge and skills they need to function in college chemistry and physics, and to perform well in medical school.

The material in the above section should be used only as a guide when planning your premedical curriculum. It is important that you do not interpret this guideline as a definitive statement regarding the admission requirements or policies of the schools and colleges of professional health. Each institution specifies its own requirements and procedures. It is essential that students become familiar with these requirements and make appropriate course selections in consultation with their academic adviser and the director of premedical studies.

Medical and dental schools recognize the desirability of students having a variety of interests and diverse backgrounds; applicants are urged to obtain a broad cultural background in such fields as literature, social science, psychology, philosophy and the fine arts.

Students entering JMU with an interest in preparing for medical or dental school should apply as a "premedical" or "predental" student. This classification as premedical or predental exists only to identify the student's future career interests; the student can not earn a "premedical" or "predental" degree. As students begin to clarify their academic interests through regular conversations with their assigned advisers, they will select a major in one of the regular four-year degree programs offered by the university while, at the same time, completing the necessary prerequisites for application/admission to medical or dental school.

Students who are planning professional health careers should discuss these goals with their undergraduate adviser(s) and refer to the "Premedical Handbook," which can be obtained from the Office of Premedical Studies. It is important to begin this planning process when college studies are initiated. It is imperative that students make plans for career options to accommodate alternatives.

Students are also encouraged to confer with Dr. Cletus M. Sellers Jr., director of premedical studies (703 568-6652); Dr. Robert C. Atkins, Department of Chemistry; Mr. John R. Gordon, Department of Physics; or Dr. Jacqueline B. Walker, Department of History.

Pre-Pharmacy Program

The pre-pharmacy program at James Madison University consists of two to three years of study, and is followed by professional study at a college of pharmacy. The Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) is required by most colleges of pharmacy and recommended by others. This test should be taken by the fall of the year in which the student applies to a college of pharmacy. Most colleges of pharmacy offer a bachelor's degree in pharmacy as well as graduate degrees in pharmacy and related areas. Course work at JMU should be planned to prepare for the particular college of pharmacy in which the student plans to enroll and the degree ultimately desired. Early consultation with the dean or admissions counselor of that college is important.

The following are recommended courses that can meet the minimum requirements for most pharmacy colleges requiring pre-professional studies.


                                                  Credit
                                                   Hours
BIO 120. General Zoology                               4
BIO 130. General Botany                                4
CHEM 131-132. General Chemistry I-II                   6
CHEM 131L-132L. General Chemistry Laboratories         2
CHEM 341-342. Organic Chemistry Lecture                6
CHEM 346L. Organic Chemistry Laboratory                2
ENG 101-102. Reading and Composition                 3-6
Choose from the following:                             6
  MATH 155. Functions and Probability
    and MATH 205. Introductory Calculus I 
    (three credits each)
  MATH 205-206. Introductory Calculus I-II (six credits)
Choose from the following:                             3
  PHIL 250. Introductory Logic
  PHIL 270. Introduction to Ethics
PHYS 130-135. General Physics I-II                     8
Electives                                             18
                                                    ____
                                                   62-65
For additional information, contact Dr. Donna S. Amenta, Department of Chemistry, Miller Hall, Room 236.

Pre-Physical Therapy Program

Preparation for admission to programs offering professional degrees in physical therapy may be completed at JMU. The remaining years are taken at a school of physical therapy.

The bachelor's degree in physical therapy has been phased out by some schools and, instead, a master's degree in physical therapy is offered. Other schools offer either or both degree programs. For admission to a bachelor's degree program, two years of prerequisite study are required.

For admission to a master's degree program some schools require three years of pre-physical therapy academic work; others require completion of a bachelor's degree before admission to a school of physical therapy. Students should ascertain the admission requirements of the physical therapy school(s) of their choice and select specific courses to meet these requirements.

Students planning to complete a bachelor's degree at JMU before entering a master's program in physical therapy must complete studies in an academic major subject area, as well as the physical therapy prerequisites. Coordination of both the major and the physical therapy program is critical to efficient academic progress, and can be facilitated by early contact with the physical therapy adviser.

The following are recommended courses that can meet the requirements of most physical therapy schools which still accept students after two years of study. Additional courses that may be suitable in the third year for applicants to master's programs are also listed. Students interested in physical therapy should consult the biology department office or Dr. Beverly Silver of the Department of Biology.

Pre-Physical Therapy


                                                  Credit
Freshman Year                                      Hours
BIO 120. General Zoology (Spring)                      4
CHEM 131-132. General Chemistry with Laboratories      8
ENG 101-102. Reading and Composition                   6
MATH 155 or 156. Functions and Probability             3
MATH 220. Elementary Statistics                        3
PSYC 101-102. General Psychology I-II                  6
Physical education/dance course                        2
  (or sophomore year)
                                                    ____
                                                   30-32

                                                  Credit
Sophomore Year                                     Hours
BIO 220. Cell Biology (Fall)                           3
BIO 270. Human Physiology (Spring)                     3
BIO 290. Human Anatomy (Fall)                          4
PHYS 130-135. General Physics I-II (or junior year)    8
Choose one of the following                            3
  PSYC 160. Life Span Human Development
  Liberal studies course
Social science course (non-psychology)                 3
Electives [1]                                          8
                                                    ____
                                                      32
________
Notes:
[1]
Specified by physical therapy school or major courses.
Suggestions for the third and fourth years in preparation for admission to a master's program:

                                                  Credit
                                                   Hours
CHEM 221-221L. Concepts of Organic                     4
  Chemistry with Laboratory [1]
CHEM 222-222L. Concepts of Biochemistry with           4
  Laboratory [1]
KIN 383. Biomechanical Principles of Kinesiology       3
MATH 205. Introductory Calculus I [1]                  3
English literature courses (200 level)                 6
Electives [2]                                      12-14
                                                    ____
                                                      32
________
Notes:
[1]
Requirement may vary by schools.
[2]
Specified by physical therapy school or major courses.


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Last reviewed: Sept. 10, 1994
Information Publisher: Academic Services