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Scaffold Safety

  1. PURPOSE

    To ensure a safe workplace based on the following formal, written procedures for scaffold work. These procedures will be reviewed and updated as needed to comply with new OSHA regulations, new best practices in scaffolding and aerial platforms/lifts operations. Copies of the written program may be obtained at the University Services Building, room 222A. This scaffold and aerial platform/lift safety plan applies to ALL scaffolds and aerial platforms/lifts where work is being performed at James Madison University. (Ref. 29 CFR 1010.28, 29 CFR 1926.450-454, and FM Procedure III:07.)

  2. DEFINITIONS

    Competent Person - One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

    Qualified Person - One who by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

  3. RESPONSIBILITIES

    FM Director - Responsible for the overall implementation of this procedure.

    FM Assistant Director for Operations - Ensure the necessary training is acquired by all associates working on scaffolds or aerial platforms.

    Engineering Manager - Responsible to appoint an FM Engineer to serve as a Qualified Person and to receive the necessary training for this position.

    Maintenance Manager - Responsible to appoint a supervisor(s) or lead person(s) to serve as Competent Person(s) and to receive training for this position.

    Maintenance Supervisors - Responsible to ensure that all scaffold and aerial platform work is performed by persons trained to perform such work.

    Safety Manager - Responsible to ensure that all provisions of this procedure are kept updated according to the latest OSHA requirements and that training is available for FM associates.

    FM Training Coordinator - Responsible for scheduling necessary training and maintaining training records.

    FM Competent Person - Responsible for the following:

    1. Not to intermix scaffold components manufactured by different manufacturers unless the components fit together without force and the scaffold’s structural integrity is maintained. Scaffold components manufactured by different manufacturers will not be modified in order to intermix them unless the FM Competent Person determines the resulting scaffold is structurally sound.

    2. Evaluating all direct connections and to confirm, based on that evaluation, that the supporting surfaces are capable of supporting the loads to be imposed before a suspension scaffold may be used.

    3. Inspecting all suspension scaffold ropes prior to each work shift and after every occurrence which could affect a rope’s integrity. Ropes shall be replaced if any of the conditions outlined in 29 CFR 1926.451(d)(10) exist.

    4. Directly supervising the erection, moving, dismantling, or altering of all scaffolds used by FM associates.

    Qualified Person - Shall be responsible for the following:

    1. The design, construction and loading of all scaffolds.

    2. Ensuring that swaged attachments or spliced eyes on wire suspension scaffolds are not used unless they are made by the wire rope manufacturer.

    3. Training each associate who performs work while on a scaffold to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and to understand the procedures to control or to minimize those hazards. This training is to be documented and signed copies to be given to the FM Training Coordinator.

  4. PROCEDURE

    1. GENERAL: This procedure applies to all scaffold and aerial platform/lift operations for James Madison University.

      NOTE: The following requirements are from the new scaffolding rule which became effective on November 29, 1996.

    2. CAPACITY: Taking into account the OSHA rules that must apply and the engineering/manufacturing requirements of our scaffolds, the following rules apply. NOTE: The manufacturer’s safety requirements for particular scaffold assemblies are included.

      1. Each scaffold and scaffold component used will support, without failure, its own weight and at least four times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to it.

      2. When non-adjustable suspension scaffolds are used, each suspension rope, including connecting hardware, will support, without failure, at least six times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that rope.

      3. Capacity - Except as provided in paragraphs (3)(a), (3)(b0, and (3)(d) of this section, each scaffold and scaffold component shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least four times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to it.

        1. Direct connections to roofs and floors, and counterweights used to balance adjustable suspension scaffolds, shall be capable of resisting at least 4 times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffold operating at the rated load of the hoist, or 1.5 (minimum) times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffold operating at the stall load of the hoist, whichever is greater.

        2. Each suspension rope, including connecting hardware, used on non- adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 6 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that rope.

        3. Each suspension rope, including connecting hardware, used on adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 6 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that rope with the scaffold operating at either the rated load of the hoist, or 2 (minimum) times the stall load of the hoist, whichever is greater.

        4. The stall load of any scaffold hoist shall not exceed 3 times its rated load.


    3. PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION - This section documents the procedures and safety requirements to construct scaffold platforms. The following safety rules apply for scaffold construction:

      1. Each scaffold plank will be installed so that the space between adjacent planks and the space between the platform and uprights is no more than one inch wide. If, in certain situations, it is required to make this space wider, the demonstration of this situation(s) will be in the appendix to this plan.

      2. Except for outrigger scaffolds (3 inches) and plastering and lathing operations (18 inches), the front edge of all platforms will not be more than 14 inches from the face of the work, unless we have a guardrail or personal fall arrest system in place that meets regulations.

      3. [1926.451(b) Scaffold platform construction.

        1. Each platform on all working levels of scaffolds shall be fully planked or decked between the front uprights and the guardrail supports as follows:

          1. Each platform unit (e.g., scaffold plank, fabricated plank, or fabricated platform) shall be installed so that the space between adjacent units and the space between the platform and the uprights is no more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, except where the employer can demonstrate that a wider space is necessary (for example, to fit around uprights when side brackets are used to extend the width of the platform).

          2. Where the employer makes the demonstration provided for in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, the platform shall be planked or decked as fully as possible and the remaining open space between the platform and the uprights shall not exceed 9 ½ inches (24.1 cm).

            Exception to paragraph (b)(1): The requirement in paragraph (b)(1) to provide full planking or decking does not apply to platforms used solely as walkways or solely by employees performing platform erection or dismantling. In these situations, only the planking that the employer establishes is necessary to provide safe working conditions is required.

        2. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(2)(ii) of this section, each scaffold platform and walkway shall be at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide.

          1. Each ladder jack scaffold, top plate bracket scaffold, roof bracket scaffold, and pump jack scaffold shall be at least 12 inches (30 cm) wide. There is no minimum width required for boatswains’ chairs.

            Note to paragraph (b)(2)(i): Pursuant to an administrative stay effective November 29, 1996 and published in the Federal Register on November 25, 1996, the requirement in paragraph (b)(2)(i) that roof bracket scaffolds be at least 12 inches wide is stayed until November 25, 1997 or until rulemaking regarding the minimum width of roof bracket scaffolds has been completed, whichever is later.

          2. Where scaffolds must be used in areas that the employer can demonstrate are so narrow that platforms and walkways cannot be at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide, such platforms and walkways shall be as wide as feasible, and employees on those platforms and walkways shall be protected from fall hazards by the use of guardrails and/or personal fall arrest systems.

        3. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, the front edge of all platforms shall not be more than 14 inches (36 cm) from the face of the work, unless guardrails are erected along the front edge and/or personal fall arrest systems are used in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section to protect employees from falling.

          1. The maximum distance from the face for outrigger scaffolds shall be 3 inches (8 cm);

          2. The maximum distance from the face for plastering and lathing operations shall be 18 inches (46 cm).

        4. Each end of a platform, unless cleated or otherwise restrained by hooks or other equivalent means, shall extend over the centerline of its support at least 6 inches (15 cm).

        5. Each end of a platform 10 feet or less in length shall not extend over its support more than 12 inches (30 cm) unless the platform is designed and installed so that the cantilever portion of the platform is able to support emp0loyees and/or materials without tipping, or has guardrails which block employee access to the cantilevered end.

          1. Each platform greater than 10 feet in length shall not extend over its support more than 18 inches (46 cm) unless it is designed and installed so that the cantilevered portion of the platform is able to support employees without tipping, or has guardrails which block employee access to the cantilevered end.

          2. On scaffolds where scaffold planks are abutted to create a long platform, each abutted end shall rest on a separate support surface. This provision does not include the use of common support members, such as “T” sections, to support abutting planks, or hook on platforms designed to rest on common supports.

        6. On platforms where scaffolds are overlapped to create a long platform, the overlap shall occur only over supports, and shall not be less than 12 inches (30 cm) unless the platforms are nailed together or otherwise restrained to prevent movement.

        7. At all points on the scaffold where the platform changes direction, such as turning a corner, any platform that rests on a bearer at an angle other than a right angle shall be laid first, and platforms which rest at right angles over the same bearer shall be laid second, on top of the first platform.

        8. Wood platforms shall not be covered with opaque finishes, except that platform edges may be covered or marked for identification. Platforms may be coated periodically with wood preservatives, fire retardant finishes, and slip resistant finishes; however, the coating may not obscure the top or bottom wood surfaces.

        9. Scaffold components manufactured by different manufacturers shall not be intermixed unless the components fit together without force and the scaffolds’ structural integrity is maintained by the user. Scaffold components manufactured by different manufacturers shall not be modified in order to intermix them unless a competent person determines the resulting scaffold is structurally sound.

        10. Scaffold components made of dissimilar metals shall not be used unless a competent person has determined that galvanic action will not reduce the strength of any component to a level below that required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section.]

    4. SUPPORTED SCAFFOLDS

      1. Supported scaffolds with a height to base width of more than four to one (4:1) must be restrained from tipping by guying, tying, bracing, or equivalent means.

      2. Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights will always bear on base plates and mud sills or other adequate firm foundations.

      3. [1926.451(c) Criteria for supported scaffolds.

        1. Supported scaffolds with a height to base width (including outrigger supports, if used) ratio of more than four to one (4:1) shall be restrained from tipping by guying, tying, bracing, or equivalent means, as follows:

          1. Guys, ties, and braces shall be installed at locations where horizontal members support both inner and outer legs.

          2. Guys, ties, and braces shall be installed according to the scaffold manufacturer’s recommendations or at the closest horizontal member to the 4:1 height and be repeated vertically at locations of horizontal members every 20 feet (6.1 m) or less thereafter for scaffolds 3 feet (0.91 m) wide or less, and every 26 feet (7.9 m) or less thereafter for scaffolds greater than 3 feet (0.91 m) wide. The top guy, tie or brace of completed scaffolds shall be placed no further than the 4:1 height from the top. Such guys, ties and braces shall be installed at each end of the scaffold and at horizontal intervals not to exceed 30 feet (9.1 m) (measured from one end [not both] towards the other).

          3. Ties, guys, braces, or outriggers shall be used to prevent the tipping of supported scaffolds in all circumstances where an eccentric load, such as a cantilevered work platform, is applied or is transmitted to the scaffold.

        2. Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates and mud sills or other adequate firm foundation.

          1. Footings shall be level, sound, rigid, and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold without settling or displacement.

          2. Unstable objects shall not be used to support scaffolds or platform units.

          3. Unstable objects shall not be used as working platforms.

          4. Front-end loaders and similar pieces of equipment shall not be used to support scaffold platforms unless they have been specifically designed by the manufacturer for such use.

          5. Fork-lifts shall not be used to support scaffold platforms unless the entire platform is attached to the fork and the fork-lift is not moved horizontally while the platform is occupied.

        3. Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall be plumb and braced to prevent swaying and displacement.]

    5. SUSPENSION SCAFFOLDS

      1. Before a scaffold is used, all direct connections will be evaluated by a competent person. The competent person will confirm, based on the evaluation, that the supporting surfaces are capable of supporting the loads that will be imposed.

      2. When winding drum hoists are used on a suspension scaffold, they will never contain less than four wraps of the suspension rope at the lowest point of scaffold travel.

      3. [1926.451(d) Criteria for suspension scaffolds.

        1. All suspension scaffold support devices, such as outrigger beams, cornice hooks, parapet clamps, and similar devices, shall rest on surfaces capable of supporting at least 4 times the load imposed on them by the scaffold operating at the rated load of the hoist (or at least 1.5 times the load imposed on them by the scaffold at the stall capacity of the hoist, whichever is greater).

        2. Suspension scaffold outrigger beams, when used, shall be made of structural metal or equivalent strength material, and shall be restrained to prevent movement.

        3. The inboard ends of suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall be stabilized by bolts or other direct connections to the floor or roof deck, or they shall have their inboard ends stabilized by counterweights, except masons’ multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall not be stabilized by counterweights.

          1. Before the scaffold is use, direct connections shall be evaluated by a competent person who shall confirm, based on the evaluation, that the supporting surfaces are capable of supporting the loads to be imposed. In addition, masons’ multi-point adjustable scaffold connections shall be designed by an engineer experienced in such scaffold construction.

          2. Counterweights shall be made of non-flowable material. Sand, gravel and similar materials that can be easily dislocated shall not be used as counterweights.

          3. Only those items specifically designed as counterweights shall be used to counterweight scaffold systems. Construction materials such ass, but not limited to, masonry units and rolls of roofing felt, shall not be used as counterweights.

          4. Counterweights shall be secured by mechanical means to the outrigger beams to prevent accidental displacement.

          5. Counterweights shall not be removed from an outrigger beam until the scaffold is disassembled.

          6. Outrigger beams which are not stabilized by bolts or other direct connections to the floor or roof deck shall be secured by tiebacks.

          7. Tiebacks shall be equivalent in strength to the suspension ropes.

          8. Outrigger beams shall be placed perpendicular to its bearing support (usually the face of the building or structure). However, where the employer can demonstrate that it is not possible to place an outrigger beam perpendicular to the face of the building or structure because of obstructions that cannot be moved, the outrigger beam may be placed at some angle, providing opposing angle tiebacks are used.

          9. Tiebacks shall be secured to a structurally sound anchorage on the building or structure. Sound anchorages include structural members, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, or electrical conduit.

          10. Tiebacks shall be installed perpendicular to the face of the building or structure, or opposing angle tiebacks shall be installed. Single tiebacks installed at an angle are prohibited.

        4. Suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall be:

          1. Provided with stop bolts or shackles at both ends;

          2. Securely fastened together with the flanges turned out when channel iron beams are used in place of I-beams;

          3. Installed with all bearing supports perpendicular to the beam center line;

          4. Set and maintained with the web in a vertical position; and

          5. When an outrigger beam is used, the shackle or clevis with which the rope is attached to the outrigger beam shall be placed directly over the center line of the stirrup.

        5. Suspension scaffold support devices such as cornice hooks, roof hooks, roof irons, parapet clamps, or similar devices shall be;

          1. Made of steel, wrought iron, or materials of equivalent strength;

          2. Supported by bearing blocks; and

          3. Secured against movement by tiebacks installed at right angles to the face of the building or structure, or opposing angle tiebacks shall be installed and secured to a structurally sound point of anchorage on the building or structure. Sound points of anchorage include structural members, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, or electrical conduit.

          4. Tiebacks shall be equivalent in strength to the hoisting rope.

        6. When winding drum hoists are used on a suspension scaffold, they shall contain not less than four wraps of the suspension rope at the lowest point of scaffold travel. When other types of hoists are used, the suspension rope shall be long enough to allow the scaffold to be lowered to the level below without the rope end passing through the hoist, or the rope end shall be configured or provided with a means to prevent the end from passing through the hoist.

        7. The use of repaired wire rope as suspension rope is prohibited.

        8. Wire suspension ropes shall not be joined together except through the use of eye splice thimbles connected with shackles or coverplates and bolts.

        9. The load end of wire suspension ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles and secured by eyesplicing or equivalent means.

        10. Ropes shall be inspected for defects by a competent person prior to each workshift and after each occurrence which could affect a rope’s integrity. Ropes shall be replaced if any of the following conditions exist:

          1. Any physical damage which impairs the function and strength of the rope.

          2. Kinks that might impair the tracking or wrapping of rope around the drum(s) or sheave(s).

          3. Six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope or lay.

          4. Abrasion, corrosion, scrubbing, flattening or peening causing loss of more than one-third of the original diameter of the outside wires.

          5. Heat damage caused by a torch or any damage caused by contact with electrical wires.

          6. Evidence that the secondary brake has been activated during an overspeed condition and has engaged the suspension rope.

        11. Swaged attachments or spliced eyes on wire suspension ropes shall not be used unless they are made by the rope manufacturer or a qualified person.

        12. When wire rope clips are used on suspension scaffolds:

          1. There shall be a minimum of 3 wire rope clips installed, with the clips a minimum of 6 rope diameters apart;

          2. Clips shall be installed according to the manufacturer’s recommendations;

          3. Clips shall be retightened to the manufacturer’s recommendations after the initial loading.

          4. Clips shall be inspected and retightened to the manufacturer’s recommendations at the start of each workshift thereafter;

          5. U-bolt clips shall not be used at the point of suspension for any scaffold hoist.

          6. When U-bolt clips are used, the U-bolt shall be placed over the dead end of the rope, and the saddle shall be placed over the live end of the rope.

        13. Suspension scaffold power-operated hoists and manual hoists shall be tested by a qualified testing laboratory.

        14. Gasoline-powered equipment and hoists shall not be used on suspension scaffolds.

        15. Gears and brakes of power-operated hoists used on suspension scaffolds shall be enclosed.

        16. In addition to the normal operating brake, suspension scaffold power-operated hoists and manually operated hoists shall have a braking device or locking pawl which engages automatically when a hoist makes either of the following uncontrolled movements: an instantaneous change in momentum or an accelerated overspeed.

        17. Manually operated hoists shall require a positive crank force to descend.

        18. Two-point and multi-point suspension scaffolds shall be tied or otherwise secured to prevent them from swaying, as determined to be necessary based on an evaluation by a competent person. Window cleaners’ anchors shall not be used for this purpose.

        19. Devices whose sole function is to provide emergency escape and rescue shall not be used as working platforms. This provision does not preclude the use of systems which are designed to function both as suspension scaffolds and emergency systems.

    6. GAINING ACCESS TO SCAFFOLDS

      1. Getting to the working platform is critical to the safety of our associates. This section outlines the mechanical requirements for gaining access to scaffold platforms such as: (1) ladders, (2) ramps and walkways, (3) stairs, and (4) direct access from another scaffold.

      2. Working associates:

        1. Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders will be positioned so as not to tip the scaffold.

        2. All stair systems and handrails will be surfaced to prevent injury to our associates from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of their clothes.

        3. [1926.451(e) Access. This paragraph applies to scaffold access for all employees. Access requirements for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds are specifically addressed in paragraph (e)(9) of this section.

          1. When scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet(0.6 m) above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on ladders, attachable ladders, stair towers (scaffold stairways/towers, stairway type ladders (such as ladder stands), ramps, walkways, integral prefabricated scaffold access, or direct access from another scaffold, structure, personnel hoist, or similar surface shall be used. Crossbraces shall not be used as a means of access.

          2. Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders (Additional requirements for the proper construction and use of portable ladders are contained in subpart X of this part- Stairways and Ladders):

            1. Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders shall be positioned so as not to tip the scaffold;

            2. Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be positioned so that their bottom rung is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level;

            3. When hook-on and attachable ladders are used on a supported scaffold more than 35 feet (10.7 m) high, they shall have rest platforms at 35-foot (10.7 m) maximum vertical intervals;

            4. Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be specifically designed for use with the type of scaffold used;

            5. Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have a minimum rung length of 11 ½ inches (29 cm); and

            6. Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have uniformly spaced rungs with a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 ¾ inches.

          3. Stairway-type ladders shall:

            1. Be positioned such that their bottom step is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level;

            2. Be provided with rest platforms at 12 foot (3.7 m) maximum vertical intervals;

            3. Have a minimum step width of 16 inches (41 cm), except that mobile scaffold stairway-type ladders shall have a minimum step width of 11 ½ inches (30 cm); and

            4. Have slip-resistant treads on all steps and landings.

          4. Stairtowers (scaffold stairway/towers) shall be positioned such that their bottom st4ep is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level.

            1. A stairrail consisting of a toprail and a midrail shall be provided on each side of each scaffold stairway.

            2. The toprail of each stairrail system shall also be capable of serving as a handrail, unless a separate handrail is provided.

            3. Handrails, and toprails that serve as handrails, shall provide an adequate handhold for employees grasping them to avoid falling.

            4. Stairrail systems and handrails shall be surfaced to prevent injury to employees from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing.

            5. The ends of stairrail systems and handrails shall be constructed so that they do not constitute a projection hazard.

            6. Handrails and toprails that are used as hand rails, shall be at least 3 inches (7.6 cm) from other objects.

            7. Stairrails shall be not less than 28 inches (71 cm) nor more than 37 inches (94 cm) from the upper surface of the stairrail to the surface of the tread, in line with the face of the riser at the forward edge of the tread.

            8. A landing platform at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) wide by at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) long shall be provided at each level.

            9. Each scaffold stairway shall b eat least 18 inches (45.7 cm0 wide between stairrails.

            10. Treads and landings shall have slip-resistant surfaces.

            11. Stairways shall be installed between 40 degrees and 60 degrees from the horizontal.

            12. Guardrails meeting the requirements of paragraph (g)(4) of this section shall be provided on the open sides and ends of each landing.

            13. Riser height shall be uniform, within ¼ inch (0.6 cm) for each flight of stairs. Greater variations in riser height are allowed for the top and bottom steps of the entire system, not for each flight of stairs.

            14. Tread depth shall be uniform, within ¼ inch, for each flight of stairs.

          5. Ramps and walkways.

            1. Ramps and walkways 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels shall have guardrail systems which comply with subpart M of this part-Fall Protection;

            2. No ramp or walkway shall be inclined more than a slope of one (10 vertical to three (3) horizontal 920 degrees above the horizontal).

            3. If the slope of a ramp or a walkway is steeper than one (10 vertical in eight (8) horizontal, the ramp or walkway shall have cleats not more than fourteen (140 inches (35 cm ) apart which are securely fastened to the planks to provide footing.

          6. Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames shall:

            1. Be specifically designed and constructed for use as ladder rungs;

            2. Have a rung length of at least 8 inches (20 cm);

            3. Not be used as work platforms when rungs are less than 11 ½ inches in length, unless each affected employee uses fall protection, or a positioning device, which complies with para. 1926.502;

            4. Be uniformly spaced within each frame section;

            5. Be provided with rest platforms at 35-foot (10.7 m) maximum vertical intervals on all supported scaffolds more than 35 feet (10.7 m) high; and

            6. Have a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 ¾ inches (43 cm0. Non-uniform rung spacing caused by joining end frames together is allowed, provided the resulting spacing does not exceed 16 ¾ inches (43 cm).

          7. Steps and rungs of ladder and stairway type access shall line up vertically with each other between rest platforms.

          8. Direct access to or from another surface shall be used only when the scaffold is not more than 14 inches (36 cm) horizontally and not more than 24 inches (61 cm) vertically from the other surface.

          9. Effective September 2, 1997, access for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds shall be in accordance with the following:

            1. The employer shall provide safe means of access for each employee erecting or dismantling a scaffold where the provision of safe access is feasible and does not create a greater hazard. The employer shall have a competent person determine whether it is feasible or would pose a greater hazard to provide, and have employees use a safe means of access. This determination shall be based on site conditions and the type of scaffold being erected or dismantled.

            2. Hook-on or attachable ladders shall be installed as soon as scaffold erection has progressed to a point that permits safe installation and use.

            3. When erecting or dismantling tubular welded frame scaffolds, (end) frames, with horizontal members that are parallel, level and are not more than 22 inches apart vertically may be used as climbing devices for access, provided they are erected in a manner that creates a usable ladder and provides good hand and foot space.

            4. Cross braces on tubular welded frame scaffolds shall not be used as a means of access or egress.

        4. Erectors and Dismantlers:

          Note: Effective September 2, 1997 access for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds must be in accordance with § 1926.451(e)(9)(see above.

    7. FALL PROTECTION PLAN

      Fall protection planning is critical to the safety and well being of our associates. Our fall protection plan follows the OSHA requirements which are different depending on the type of scaffold we are using. In this plan we address fall protection for our scaffold erectors and dismantlers separately. Fall protection MUST be provided for any associate on a scaffold more than 10 feet above a lower level.

      1. Working Associates:

        1. Single- or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold - Each associate on our single- or two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds will be protected by a personal fall arrest system. Our personal fall arrest systems :

          1. Shall meet the requirements of § 1926.502(d)(OSHA’s Fall Protection Rule).

          2. Shall be attached by lanyard to a vertical lifeline, horizontal lifeline, or scaffold structural member.

        2. [1926.451(g)(3) In addition to meeting the requirements of 1926.502(d), personal fall arrest systems used on scaffolds shall be attached by lanyard to a vertical lifeline, horizontal lifeline, or structural member. Vertical lifelines shall not be used when overhead components, such as overhead protection or additional platform levels, are part of a single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold.

          1. When vertical lifelines are used, they shall be fastened to a fixed safe point of anchorage, shall be independent of the scaffold, and shall be protected from sharp edges and abrasion. Safe points of anchorage include structural members of buildings, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, electrical conduit, outrigger beams, or counterweights.

          2. When horizontal lifelines are used, they shall be secured to two or more structural members of the scaffold, or they may be looped around both suspension and independent suspension lines (on scaffolds so equipped) above the hoist and brake attached to the end of the scaffold. Horizontal lifelines shall not be attached only to the suspension ropes.

          3. When lanyards are connected to horizontal lifelines or structural members on a single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold, the scaffold shall be equipped with additional independent support lines and automatic locking devices capable of stopping the fall of the scaffold in the event one or both of the suspension ropes fail. The independent support lines shall be equal in number and strength to the suspension ropes.

          4. Vertical lifelines, independent support lines, and suspension ropes shall not be attached to each other, nor shall they be attached to or use the same point of anchorage, nor shall they be attached to the same point on the scaffold or personal fall arrest system.]

        3. Self-contained adjustable scaffold supported by the frame structure-We will protect each associate on our self-contained, frame structure supported, adjustable scaffolds by a guardrail system. The guardrail system:

          1. Has a minimum 200 pound toprail capacity; and

          2. Shall be installed before being released for use by our associates.

        4. [1926.451(g)(4) guardrail systems installed to meet the requirements of this section shall comply with the following provisions (guardrail systems built in accordance with Appendix A to this subpart will be deemed to meet the requirements of paragraphs (g)(4)(vii), (viii), and (ix) of this section):

          1. Guardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms. Guardrail systems shall be installed before the scaffold is released for use by employees other than erection/dismantling crews.

          2. The top edge height of toprails or equivalent member on supported scaffolds manufactured or placed in service after January 1, 2000 shall be installed between 38 inches (0.97 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m) above the platform surface. The top edge height on supported scaffolds placed in service before January 1, 2000, and on all suspended scaffolds where both a guardrail and a personal fall arrest system are required shall be between 36 inches (0.9 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m). When conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45-inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of paragraph (g)(4).

          3. When midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, or equivalent structural members are used, they shall be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the scaffold platform.

          4. When midrails are used, they shall be installed at a height approximately midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the platform surface.

          5. When screens and mesh are used, they shall extend from the top edge of the guardrail system to the scaffold platform, and along the entire opening between the supports.

          6. When intermediate members (such as balusters or additional rails) are used, they shall not be more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart.

          7. Each toprail or equivalent member of a guardrail system shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along its top edge for at least 100 pounds (445n) for guardrail systems installed on single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds or two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds, and at least 200 pounds (890 n) for guardrail systems installed on all other scaffolds.

          8. When the loads specified in paragraph (g)(4)(vii) of this section are applied in a downward direction, the top edge shall not droop below the height above the platform surface that is prescribed in paragraph (g)(4)(ii) of this section.

          9. Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and equivalent structural members of a guardrail system shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the midrail or other member of at least 75 pounds (333 n) for guardrail systems with a minimum 100 pound toprail capacity, and at least 150 pounds (666 n) for guardrail systems with a minimum 200 pound toprail capacity.

          10. Suspension scaffold hoists and non-walk-through stirrups may be used as end guardrails, if the space between the hoist or stirrup and the side guardrail or structure does not allow passage of an employee to the end of the scaffold.

          11. Guardrails shall be surfaced to prevent injury to an employee from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing.

          12. The ends of all rails shall not overhang the terminal posts except when such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard to employees.

          13. Steel or plastic banding shall not be used as a toprail or midrail.

          14. Manila or plastic (or other synthetic) rope being used for toprails or midrails shall be inspected by a competent person as frequently as necessary to ensure that it continues to meet the strength requirements of paragraph (g) of this section.

          15. Crossbracing is acceptable in place of a midrail when the crossing point of two braces is between 20inches (0.5 m) and 30 inches (0.8 m) above the work platform or as a toprail when the crossing point of two braces is between 38 inches (0.97 m) and 48 inches (1.3 m0above the work platform. The end points at each upright shall be no more than 48 inches (1.3 m) apart.]

    8. FALLING OBJECT PROTECTION

      1. All associates shall wear hard-hats when working on, assembling, or dismantling scaffolds. This is our primary protection from falling objects. Additionally, we shall:

        1. Install guardrail systems with openings small enough to prevent passage of potential falling objects.

        2. Prevent tools, materials, or equipment that inadvertently fall from our scaffolds from striking any person(s) by barricading the area below the scaffold.

        3. [1926.451(h) Falling object protection.

          1. In addition to wearing hard-hats each employee on a scaffold shall be provided with additional protection from falling hand tools, debris, and other small objects through the installation of toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems, or through the erection of debris nets, catch platforms, or canopy structures that contain or deflect the falling objects. When falling objects are too large, heavy or massive to be contained or deflected by any of the above-listed measurers, the employer shall place such potential falling objects away from the edge of the surface from which they could fall and shall secure those materials as necessary to prevent their falling.

          2. Where there is a danger of tools, materials, or equipment falling from a scaffold and striking employees below, the following provisions apply:

            1. The area below the scaffold to which objects can fall shall be barricaded, and employees shall not be permitted to enter the hazard area; or

            2. A toeboard shall be erected along the edge of the platforms more than 10 feet (3.1 m) above lower levels for a distance sufficient to protect employees below, except on float (ship) scaffolds where an edging of ¾ x 1½ inch (2 x 4 cm) wood or equivalent may be used in lieu of toeboards;

            3. Where tools, materials, or equipment are piled to a height higher than the top edge of the toeboard, paneling or screening extending from the toeboard or platform to the top of the guardrail shall be erected for a distance sufficient to protect employees below; or

            4. A guardrail system shall be installed with openings small enough to prevent passage of potential falling objects; or

            5. A canopy structure, debris net, or catch platform strong enough to withstand the impact forces of the potential falling objects shall be erected over the employees below.

          3. Canopies, when used for falling object protection, shall comply with the following criteria:

            1. Capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 n) applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the toeboard (toeboards built in accordance with Appendix A to this subpart will be deemed to meet this requirement); and

            2. At least three and one-half inches (9 cm) high from the top edge of the toeboard to the level of the walking/working surface. Toeboards shall be securely fastened in place at the outermost edge of the platform and have not more than ¼ inch (0.7 cm) clearance above the walking/working surface. Toeboards shall be solid or with openings not over one inch (2.5 cm) in the greatest dimension.]

    9. USING SCAFFOLDS

      Site preparation, scaffold erection, fall protection, and gaining access to the working platform are only part of the requirements for scaffold work. While this all takes concentration and safe work practices, the most dangerous time can be when associates are concentrating on their work and are not particularly aware of the hazards of working from scaffolds. It is critical that associates who use scaffolds be trained, among other things, in the recognition of the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and to understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards. Our competent person shall inspect all scaffolds and scaffold components for visible defects before each work shift and after any occurrence which could affect a scaffold’s structural integrity. In addition, all users of scaffolds at this university shall know and understand the following safety rules:

      1. Scaffolds and scaffold components will never be loaded in excess of their maximum intended loads or rated capacities.

      2. Debris must not be allowed to accumulate on platforms.

      3. Scaffolds and scaffold components will never be loaded in excess of their maximum intended loads or rated capacities.

      4. [1926.451(f) Use.

        1. Scaffolds and scaffold components shall not be loaded in excess of their maximum intended loads or rated capacities, whichever is less.

        2. The use of shore or lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.

        3. Scaffolds and scaffold components shall be inspected for visible defects by a competent person before each work shift, and after any occurrence which could affect a scaffold’s structural integrity.

        4. Any part of a scaffold damaged or weakened such that its strength is less than that required by paragraph (a) of this section shall be immediately repaired or replaced, braced to meet those provisions, or removed from service until repaired.

        5. Scaffolds shall not be moved horizontally while employees are on them, unless they have been designed by a registered professional engineer specifically for such movement or, for mobile scaffolds, where the provisions of §1926.425(w) are followed.

        6. The clearance between scaffolds and power lines shall be as follows: Scaffolds shall not be erected, used, dismantled, altered, or moved such that they or any conductive material handled on them might come closer to exposed and energized power lines than (see table §1926.451(f)(6). Exception to paragraph (f)(6): Scaffolds and materials may be closer to power lines than specified above where such clearance is necessary for performance of work, and only after the utility company, or electrical system operator, has been notified of the need to work closer and the utility company, or electrical system operator, has deenergized the lines, relocated the lines, or installed protective coverings to prevent accidental contact with the lines.

        7. Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffold erection, moving, dismantling or alteration. Such activities shall be performed only be experienced and trained employees selected for such work by the competent person.

        8. Employees shall be prohibited from working on scaffolds covered with snow, ice, or other slippery material except as necessary for removal of such materials.

        9. Where swinging loads are being hoisted onto or near scaffolds such that the loads might contact the scaffold, tag lines or equivalent measures to control the loads shall be used.

        10. Suspension ropes supporting adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be of a diameter large enough to provide sufficient surface area for the functioning of brake and hoist mechanisms.

        11. Suspension ropes shall be shielded from heat-producing processes. When acids or other corrosive substances are used on a scaffold, the ropes shall be shielded, treated to protect against the corrosive substances, or shall be of a material that will not be damaged by the substance being used.

        12. Work on or from scaffolds is prohibited during storms or high winds unless a competent person has determined that it is safe for employees to be on the scaffold and those employees are protected by a personal fall arrest system or wind screens. Wind screens shall not be used unless the scaffold is secured against the anticipated wind forces imposed.

        13. Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms.

        14. Makeshift devices, such as but not limited to boxes and barrels, shall not be used on top of scaffold platforms to increase the working level of employees.

        15. Ladders shall not be used on scaffolds to increase the working level height of employees, except on large area scaffolds where employers have satisfied the following criteria:

          1. When the ladder is placed against a structure which is not a part of the scaffold, the scaffold shall be secured against the sideways thrust exerted by the ladder;

          2. The platform units shall be secured to the scaffold to prevent their movement;

          3. The ladder legs shall be on the same platform or other means shall be provided to stabilize the ladder against unequal platform deflection; and

          4. The ladder legs shall be secured to prevent them from slipping or being pushed off the platform.

        16. Platforms shall not deflect more than 1/60 of the span when loaded.

        17. To reduce the possibility of welding current arcing through the suspension wire rope when performing welding from suspended scaffolds, the following precautions shall be taken, as applicable:

          1. An insulated thimble shall be used to attach each suspension wire rope to its hanging support (such as cornice hook or outrigger). Excess suspension wire rope and any additional independent lines from grounding shall be insulated;

          2. The suspension wire rope shall be covered with insulating material extending at least 4 feet (1.2 m) above the hoist. If there is a tail line below the hoist, it shall be insulated to prevent contact with the platform. The portion of the tail line that hangs free below the scaffold shall be guided or retained, or both, so that it does not become grounded;

          3. Each hoist shall be covered with insulated protective covers;

          4. In addition to a work lead attachment required by the welding process, a grounding conductor shall be connected from the scaffold to the structure.

          5. If the scaffold grounding lead is disconnected at any time, the welding machine shall be shut off; and

          6. An active welding rod or uninsulated welding lead shall not be allowed to contact the scaffold or its suspension system.

    10. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES

      1. In addition to the general procedures in this written safety plan, there are procedures that apply to specific types of scaffolds. The safety rules for these specific types of scaffolds are found in § 1926.452.

      2. [1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of scaffolds indicated. Scaffolds not specifically addressed by § 1926.452, such as but not limited to systems scaffolds, must meet the requirements of § 1926.451.

        1. Pole Scaffolds.

          1. When platforms are being moved to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new bearers have been set in place and braced, prior to receiving the new platforms.

          2. Crossbracing shall be installed between the inner and outer sets of poles on double pole scaffolds.

          3. Diagonal bracing in both directions shall be installed across the entire inside face of double-pole scaffolds used to support loads equivalent to a uniformly distributed load of 50 pounds (222 kg) or more per square foot (929 square cm).

          4. Diagonal bracing in both directions shall be installed across the entire outside face of all double- and single-pole scaffolds.

          5. Runners and bearers shall be installed on edge.

          6. Bearers shall extend a minimum of 3 inches (7.6 cm) over the outside edges of runners.

          7. Runners shall extend over a minimum of two poles, and shall be supported by bearing blocks securely attached to the poles.

          8. Braces, bearers, and runners shall not be spliced between poles.

          9. Where wooden poles are spliced, the ends shall be squared and the upper section shall rest squarely on the lower section. Wood splice plates shall be provided on at least two adjacent sides, and shall extend at least 2 feet (0.6 m) on either side of the splice, overlap the abutted ends equally, and have at least the same cross-sectional areas as the pole. Splice plates of other materials of equivalent strength may be used.

          10. Pole scaffolds over 60 feet in height shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with that design. Non-mandatory Appendix A to this subpart contains examples of criteria that will enable an employer to comply with design and loading requirements for pole scaffolds under 60 feet in height.

        2. Tube and coupler scaffolds.

          1. When platforms are being moved to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new bearers have been set in place and braced prior to receiving the new platform.

          2. Transverse bracing forming an “X” across the width of the scaffold shall be installed at the scaffold ends and at least at every third set of posts horizontally (measured from only one end) and at every fourth runner vertically. Bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner or outer posts or runners upward to the next outer or inner posts or runners. Building ties shall be installed at the bearer levels between the transverse bracing and shall conform to the requirements of § 1926.451(c)(10.

          3. On straight run scaffolds, longitudinal bracing across the inner and outer rows of posts shall be installed diagonally in both directions, and shall extend from the base to the end posts upward to the top of the scaffold at approximately a 45 degree angle. On scaffolds whose length is greater than their height, such bracing shall be repeated beginning at least at every fifth post. On scaffolds whose length is less than their height, such bracing shall be installed from the base of the end posts upward to the opposite end posts, and then in alternating directions until reaching the top of the scaffold. Bracing shall be installed as close as possible to the intersection of the bearer and post or runner and post.

          4. Where conditions preclude the attachment of bracing to posts, bracing shall be attached to the runners as close to the post as possible.

          5. Bearers shall be installed transversely between posts, and when coupled to the posts, shall have the inboard coupler bear directly on the runner coupler. When the bearers are coupled to the runners, the couplers shall be as close to the posts as possible.

          6. Bearers shall extend beyond the posts and runners, and shall provide full contact with the coupler.

          7. Runners shall be installed along the length of the scaffold, locate on both the inside and outside posts at level heights (when tube and coupler guardrails and midrails are used on outside posts, they may be used in lieu of outside runners).

          8. Runners shall be interlocked on straight runs to form continuous lengths, and shall be coupled to each post. The bottom runners and bearers shall be located as close to the base as possible.

          9. Couplers shall be of structural metal, such as drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. The use of gray cast iron is prohibited.

          10. Tube and coupler scaffolds over 125 feet in height shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design. Non-mandatory Appendix A to this subpart contains examples of criteria that will enable an employer to comply with design and loading requirements for tube and coupler scaffolds under 125 feet in height.

        3. Fabricated frame scaffolds (tubular welded frame scaffolds).

          1. When moving platforms to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new end frames have been set in place and braced prior to receiving the new platforms.

          2. Frames and panels shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces, or combination thereof, which secure vertical members together laterally. The cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and align vertical members so that the erected scaffold is always plumb, level, and square. All brace connections shall be secured.

          3. Frames and panels shall be joined together vertically by coupling or stacking pins or equivalent means.

          4. When uplift can occur which would displace scaffold end frames or panels, the frames or panels shall be locked together vertically by pins or equivalent means.

          5. Brackets used to support cantilevered loads shall:

            1. Be seated with side-brackets parallel to the frames and end-brackets at 90 degrees to the frames;

            2. Not be bent or twisted from these position; and

            3. Be used only to support personnel, unless the scaffold has been designed for other loads by a qualified engineer and built to withstand the tipping forces caused by those other loads being placed on the bracket-supported section of the scaffold.

          6. Scaffolds over 125 feet (38 m) I height above their base plates shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design.

        4. Plasters’, decorators’, and large area scaffolds. Scaffolds shall be constructed in accordance with paragraphs (a), (b), or (c) of this section, as appropriate.

        5. Bricklayers’ square scaffolds (squares).

          1. Scaffolds made of wood shall be reinforced with gussets on both sides of each corner.

          2. Diagonal braces shall be installed on all sides of each square.

          3. Diagonal braces shall be installed between squares on the rear and front sides of the scaffold, and shall extend from the bottom of each square to the top of the next square.

          4. Scaffolds shall not exceed three tiers in height, and shall be so constructed and arranged that one square rests directly above the other. The upper tiers shall stand on a continuous row of planks laid across the next lower tier, and shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.

        6. Horse scaffolds.

          1. Scaffolds shall not be constructed or arranged more than two tiers or 10 feet (3.0 m) in height, whichever is less.

          2. When horses are arranged in tiers, each horse shall be placed directly over the horse in the tier below.

          3. When horses are arranged in tiers, the legs of each horse shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.

          4. When horses are arranged in tiers, each tier shall be cross- braced.

        7. Form scaffolds and carpenters’ bracket scaffolds.

          1. Except bracket, except those for wooden bracket-form scaffolds, shall be attached to the supporting formwork or structure by means of one or more of the following: nails; a metal stud attachment device; welding; hooking over a secured structural supporting member, with the form wales either bolted to the form or secured by snap ties or tie bolts extending through the form and securely anchored; or, for carpenters’ bracket scaffolds only, by a bolt extending through to the opposite side of the structure’s wall.

          2. Wooden bracket-form scaffolds shall be an integral part of the form panel.

          3. Folding type metal brackets, when extended for use, shall be either bolted or secured with a locking-type pin.

        8. Roof bracket scaffolds.

          1. Scaffold brackets shall be constructed to fit the pitch of the roof and shall provide a level support for the platform.

          2. Brackets (including those provided with pointed metal projections) shall be anchored in place by nails unless it is impractical to use nails. When nails are not used, brackets shall be secured in place with first-grade manila rope of at least three-fourth inch (1.9 cm) diameter, or equivalent.

        9. Outrigger scaffolds.

          1. The inboard end of outrigger beams, measured from the fulcrum point to the extreme point of anchorage, shall be not less than one and one-half times the outboard end in length.

          2. Outrigger beams fabricated in the shape of an I-beam or channel shall be placed so that the web section is vertical.

          3. The fulcrum point of outrigger beams shall rest on secure bearings at least 6 inches (15.2 cm) in each horizontal dimension.

          4. Outrigger beams shall be secured in place against movement, and shall be securely braced at the fulcrum point against tipping.

          5. The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be securely anchored either by means of braced struts bearing against sills in contact with the overhead beams or ceiling, or by means of tension members secured to the floor joists underfoot, or by both.

          6. The entire supporting structure shall be securely braced to prevent any horizontal movement.

          7. To prevent their displacement, platform units shall be nailed, bolted, or otherwise secured to outriggers.

          8. Scaffolds and scaffold components shall be designed by a registered professional engineer and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design.

        10. Pump jack scaffolds.

          1. Pump jack brackets, braces, and accessories shall be fabricated from metal plates and angles. Each pump jack bracket shall have two positive griping mechanisms to prevent any failure or slippage.

          2. Poles shall be secured to the structure by rigid triangular bracing or equivalent at the bottom, top, and other points as necessary. When the pump jack has to pass bracing already installed, an additional brace shall be installed approximately 4 feet (1.2 m) above the brace to be passed, and shall be left in place until the pump jack has been removed and the original brace reinstalled.

          3. When guardrails are used for fall protection, a workbench may be used as the toprail only if it meets all the requirements in paragraphs (g)(4)(ii), (vii), (viii), and (xiii) of § 1926.451.

          4. Workbenches shall not be used as scaffold platforms.

          5. When poles are made of wood, the pole lumber shall be straight-grained, free of shakes, large loose or dead knots, and other defects which might impair strength.

          6. When wood poles are constructed of two continuous lengths, they shall be joined together with the seam parallel to the bracket.

          7. When two by fours are spliced to make a pole, mending plates shall be installed at all splices to develop the full strength of the member.

        11. Ladder jack scaffolds.

          1. Platforms shall not exceed a height of 20 feet (6.1 m).

          2. All ladders used to support ladder jack scaffolds shall meet the requirements of subpart X of this part- Stairways and Ladders, except that job-made ladders shall not be used to support ladder jack scaffolds.

          3. The ladder jack shall be so designed and constructed that it will bear on the side rails and ladder rungs or on the ladder rungs alone. If bearing on rungs only, the bearing area shall include a length of at least 10 inches (25.4 cm) on each rung.

          4. Ladders used to support ladder jack shall be placed, fastened, or equipped with devices to prevent slipping.

          5. Scaffold platforms shall not be bridged one to another.

        12. Window jack scaffolds.

          1. Scaffolds shall be securely attached to the window opening.

          2. Scaffolds shall be used only for the purpose of working at the window opening through which the jack is placed.

          3. Window jacks shall not be used to support planks placed between one window jack and another, or for other elements of scaffolding.

        13. Crawling boards (chicken ladders).

          1. Crawling boards shall extend from the roof peak to the eaves when used in connection with roof construction, repair, or maintenance.

          2. Crawling boards shall be secured to the roof by ridge hooks or by means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength and durability).

        14. Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds.

          1. Scaffold platforms shall not be placed any higher than the second highest rung or step of the ladder supporting the platform.

          2. All ladders used in conjunction with step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds shall meet the pertinent requirements of subpart X of this part- Stairways and Ladders, except that job-made ladders shall not be used to support such scaffolds.

          3. Ladders used to support step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds shall be placed, fastened, or equipped with devices to prevent slipping.

          4. Scaffolds shall not be bridged one to another.

        15. Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

          1. When two single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds are combined to form a two-point adjustable suspension scaffold, the resulting two-point scaffold shall comply with the requirements for two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds in paragraph (p) of this section.

          2. The supporting rope between the scaffold and the suspension device shall be kept vertical unless all of the following conditions are met:

            1. The rigging has been designed by a qualified person, and

            2. The scaffold is accessible to rescuers

          3. The supporting rope is protected to ensure that it will not chafe at any point where a change is direction occurs, and

          4. The scaffold is positioned so that swinging cannot bring the scaffold into contact with another surface.

          5. Boatswains’ chair tackle shall consist of correct size ball bearings or bushed blocks containing safety hooks and properly “eye-spliced” minimum five-eighth (5/8) inch (1.6 cm) diameter first-grade manila rope, or other rope which will satisfy the criteria (e.g., strength and durability) of manila rope.

          6. Boatswains’ chair seat slings shall be reeved through four corners holes in the seat; shall cross each other on the underside of the seat; and shall be rigged so as to prevent slippage which could cause an out-of level condition.

          7. Boatswains’ chair seat slings shall be a minimum of five-eighth (5/8) inch (1.6 cm) diameter fiber, synthetic, or other rope which will satisfy the criteria (e.g., strength, slip resistance, durability, etc.) of first grade manila rope.

          8. When a heat-producing process such as gas or arc welding is being conducted, boatswains’ chair seat slings shall be a minimum of three-eighth (3/8) inch (1.0 cm) wire rope.

          9. Non-cross-laminated wood boatswains’ chairs shall be reinforced on their underside by cleats fastened to prevent the board from splitting.

        16. Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds (swing stages). The following requirements do not apply to two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds used as masons’ or stonesetters’ scaffolds. Such scaffolds are covered by paragraph (q) of this section.

          1. Platforms shall not be more than 36 inches (0.9 m) wide unless designed by a qualified person to prevent unstable conditions.

          2. The platform shall be securely fastened to hangers (stirrups) by U-bolts or by other means which satisfy the requirements of § 1926.451(a).

          3. The blocks for fiber or synthetic ropes shall consist of at least one double and one single block. The sheaves of all blocks shall fit the size of the rope used.

          4. Platforms shall be of the ladder-type, plank-type, beam-type, or light metal-type. Light metal-type platforms having a rated capacity of 750 pounds or less and platforms 40 feet (12.2 m0 or less in length shall be tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

          5. Toe-point scaffolds shall not be bridged or otherwise connected to another during raising and lowering operations unless the bridge connections are articulated (attached), and the hoists properly sized.

          6. Passage may be made from one platform to another only when the platforms are at the same height, are abutting, and walk-through stirrups specifically designed for this purpose are used.

        17. Multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds, stonesetters’ multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds, and masons’ multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

          1. When two or more scaffolds are used they shall not be bridged one to another unless they are designed to be bridged, the bridge connections are articulated, and the hoists are properly sized.

          2. If bridges are not used, passage may be made from one platform to another only when the platforms are at the same height and are abutting.

          3. Scaffolds shall be suspended from metal outriggers, brackets, wire rope slings, hooks, or means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, durability).

        18. Catenary scaffolds.

          1. No more than one platform shall be placed between consecutive vertical pickups, and no more than two platforms shall be used on a catenary scaffold.

          2. Platforms supported by wire ropes shall have hook-shaped stops on each end of the platforms to prevent them from slipping off the wire ropes. These hooks shall be so placed that they will prevent the platform from falling if one of the horizontal ropes breaks.

          3. Wire ropes shall not be tightened to the extent that the application of a scaffold load will overstress them.

          4. Wire ropes shall be continuous and without splices between anchors.

        19. Float (ship) scaffolds.

          1. The platforms shall be supported by a minimum of two bearers, each of which shall project a minimum of 6 inches (15.2 cm) beyond the platform on both sides. Each bearer shall be securely fastened to the platform.

          2. Rope connections shall be such that the platform cannot shift of slip.

          3. When only two ropes are used with each float:

            1. They shall be arranged so as to provide four ends which are securely fastened to overhead supports.

            2. Each supporting rope shall be hitched around one end on the bearer and pass under the platform to the other end of the bearer where it is hitched again, leaving sufficient rope at each end for the supporting ties.

        20. Interior hung scaffolds.

          1. Scaffolds shall be suspended only from the roof structures or other structural member such as ceiling beams.

          2. Overhead supporting members (roof structure, ceiling beams, or other structural members) shall be inspected and checked for strength before the scaffold is erected.

          3. Suspension ropes and cables shall be connected to the overhead supporting members by shackles, clips, thimbles, or other means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, durability).

        21. Needle beam scaffolds.

          1. Scaffold support beams shall be installed on edge.

          2. Ropes or hangers shall be used for supports, except that one end of a needle beam scaffold may be supported by a permanent structural member.

          3. The ropes shall be securely attached to the needle beams.

          4. The support connection shall be arranged so as to prevent the needle beam from rolling or becoming displaced.

          5. Platform units shall be securely attached to the needle beams by bolts or equivalent means. Cleats and overhang are not considered to be adequate means of attachment.

        22. Multi-level suspended scaffolds.

          1. Scaffolds shall be equipped with additional independent support lines, equal in number to the number of points supported, and of equivalent strength to the suspension ropes, and rigged to support the scaffold in the event the suspension rope(s) fail.

          2. Independent support lines and suspension ropes shall not be attached to the same points of anchorage.

          3. Supports for platforms shall be attached directly to the support stirrup and not to any other platform.

        23. Mobile scaffolds.

          1. Scaffolds shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces, or combination thereof, to prevent racking or collapse of the scaffold and to secure vertical members together laterally so as to automatically square and align the vertical members. Scaffolds shall be plumb, level, and squared. All brace connections shall be secured.

            1. Scaffolds constructed of tube and coupler components shall also comply with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section;

            2. Scaffolds constructed of fabricated frame components shall also comply with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section;

          2. Scaffold casters and wheels shall be locked with positive wheel and/or wheel and swivel locks, or equivalent means, to prevent movement of the scaffold while the scaffold is used in a stationary manner.

          3. Manual force used to move the scaffold shall be applied as close to the base as practicable, but not more than 5 feet (1.5 m) above the supporting surface.

          4. Power systems used to propel mobile scaffolds shall be designed for such use. Forklifts, trucks, similar motor vehicles or add-on motors shall not be used to propel scaffolds unless the scaffold is designed for such propulsion systems.

          5. Scaffolds shall be stabilized to prevent tipping during movement.

          6. Employees shall not be allowed to ride on scaffolds unless the following conditions exist:

            1. The surface on which the scaffold is being moved is within 3 degrees of level, and free of pits, holes, and obstructions.

            2. The height to bas e width ratio of the scaffold during movement is two to one or less, unless the scaffold is designed and constructed to meet or exceed nationally recognized stability test requirements such as those listed in paragraph (x) of Appendix A to this subpart (ANSI/SIA A92.5 and A92.6);

            3. Outrigger frames, when used, are installed on both sides of the scaffold.

            4. When power systems are used, the propelling force is applied directly to the wheels, and does not produce a speed in excess of 1 foot per second (.3 mps); and

            5. No employee is on any part of the scaffold which extends outward beyond the wheels, casters, or other supports.

          7. Platforms shall not extend outward beyond the base supports of the scaffold unless outrigger frames or equivalent devices are used to ensure stability.

          8. Where leveling of the scaffold is necessary, screw jacks or equivalent means shall be used.

          9. Caster stems and wheel stems shall be pinned or otherwise secured in scaffold legs by adjustment screws.

          10. Before a scaffold is moved, each employee on the scaffold shall be made aware of the move.

        24. Repair bracket scaffolds.

          1. Brackets shall be secured in place by at least one wire rope at least ½ inch (1.27 cm) in diameter.

          2. Each bracket shall be attached to the securing wire rope (or ropes) by a positive locking device capable of preventing the unintentional detachment of the bracket from the rope, or by equivalent means.

          3. Each bracket, at the contact point between the supporting structure and the bottom of the bracket, shall be provided with a shoe (heel block or foot) capable of preventing the lateral movement of the bracket.

          4. Platforms shall be secured to the brackets in a manner that will prevent the separation of the platforms from the brackets and the movement of the platforms or the brackets on a completed scaffold.

          5. When a wire rope is placed around the structure in order to provide a safe anchorage for personal fall arrest systems used by employees erecting or dismantling scaffolds, the wire rope shall meet the requirements of subpart M of this part, but shall be at lest 5/16 inch (0.8)cm) in diameter.

          6. Each wire rope used for securing brackets in place or as an anchorage for personal fall arrest systems shall be protected from damage due to contact with edges, corners, protrusions, or other discontinuities of the supporting structure or scaffold components.

          7. Tensioning of each wire rope used for securing brackets in place or as an anchorage for personal fall arrest systems shall be by means of a turnbuckle at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter, or by equivalent means.

          8. Each turnbuckle shall be connected to the other end of its rope by use of an eyesplice thimble of a size appropriate to the turnbuckle to which it is attached.

          9. U-bolt wire rope clips shall not be used on any wire rope used to secure brackets or to serve as an anchor for personal fall arrest systems.

          10. The employer shall ensure that material shall not be dropped to the outside of the supporting structure.

          11. Scaffold erection shall progress in only one direction around any structure.

        25. Stilts. Stilts when used, shall be used in accordance with the following requirements:

          1. An employee may wear stilts on a scaffold only if it is a large area scaffold.

          2. When an employee is using stilts on a large area scaffold where a guardrail system is used to provide fall protection, the guardrail system shall be increased in height by an amount equal to the height of the stilts being used by the employee.

          3. Surfaces on which stilts are used hall be flat and free of pits, holes and obstructions, such as debris, as well as other tripping and falling hazards.

          4. Stilts shall be properly maintained. Any alteration of the original equipment shall be approved by the manufacturer.

    11. PROHIBITED PRACTICES

      The following practices shall never be tolerated.

      1. Scaffold components manufactured by different manufacturers will never be intermixed unless the components fit together without force and the scaffold’s structural integrity is maintained.

      2. Unstable objects will never be used to support scaffolds or platform units. Footings shall be level, sound, rigid, and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold without settling or displacement.

      3. Crossbraces will never be used as a means of access.

      4. The use of shore or lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.

    12. AERIAL LIFTS/PLATFORMS

      Anytime aerial lifts/platforms, including: (1) extensible boom platforms, (2) aerial ladders, (3) articulating boom platforms, (40 vertical towers, or (50 a combination or any such devices, are used to elevate employees to job-sites above ground, the following safety rules and FM Procedure NO. III:07, Operation of Aerial Lifts/Platforms shall apply:

      1. Only authorized associates (Those who have been properly trained and certified.) shall operate an aerial lift/platform.

      2. A body harness shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift/platform.

      3. No aerial lift/platform this university owns or uses will be “field modified” for uses other than those intended by the manufacturer unless:

        1. The manufacturer certifies the modification in writing; or

        2. Any other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, certifies the aerial lift/platform modification conforms to all applicable provisions of ANSI A92.2-1969, and the OSHA regulations found in § 1926.453. The lift/platform must be at least as safe as the equipment was before modification.

    13. LADDER TRUCKS AND TOWER TRUCKS

      1. Only authorized associates (Those who have been properly trained and certified. See FM Procedure NO. III:07.) shall operate a ladder truck or tower truck.

      2. Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device on top of the truck cab and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder before the truck is moved for highway travel.

    14. EXTENSIBLE AND ARTICULATING BOOM PLATFORMS

      1. Only authorized associates (those who have been properly trained and certified. See FM procedure NO. III:07.) shall operate an extensible or articulating boom platform.

      2. Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that they are in safe working condition.

      3. A body harness shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an extensible or articulating boom platform.

  5. TRAINING

    1. Training is required for Competent Person(s), Qualified Person(s), and all associates who:

      1. Perform work while on scaffolds;

      2. Are involved in erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing, maintaining, or inspecting scaffolds; and

      3. Have lost the requisite proficiency.

    2. The following training syllabus is a part of this written safety plan. This training shall be documented, retained by the FM Training Coordinator, and should include the associate’s name and social security number, the associates signature or initials, the name of the instructor, the location, date, hours of training, and a brief summary of the topics covered in the training.

      1. Competent Person -

        1. Must be knowledgeable about the requirements of the various scaffold standards and have sufficient training or knowledge to identify and sufficient authority to correct hazards encountered in scaffold work.

        2. Must have specific training in and be knowledgeable regarding the structural integrity of scaffolds and procedures needed to maintain them. For example, a competent person must be able to evaluate the effects of such potentially damage-causing occurrences as a dropped load or a truck backing into a supporting leg.

      2. Qualified Person(s)- Must have the training necessary to design scaffolds, solve and resolve problems related to the subject matter, the work or the project by virtue of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or by extensive knowledge, training and experience.

      3. Associates Who Use Scaffolds - FM Associates who perform work on scaffolds shall be trained by a competent person to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and to understand the procedure to control or minimize those hazards. The training shall include the following areas as applicable:

        1. The nature and the correct procedures for dealing with electrical hazards.

        2. The nature of and the correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection and falling object systems used.

        3. The proper sue of the scaffold, and the proper handling of materials on the scaffold.

        4. The maximum intended loads and the load-carrying capacities of the scaffolds used.

        5. Any other pertinent requirements of the OSHA rules.

      4. Associates Who Erect, Dissemble, Move, Operate, Repair, Maintain, or Inspect Scaffolds - FM Associates who perform this type of work shall be trained by a competent person to recognize the hazards associated with the work being done. The training shall include the following topics as applicable:

        1. General Overview of Scaffolding

          1. Regulations and Standards.

          2. The nature of scaffold hazards.

          3. Erection/dismantling planning.

          4. The design criteria, maximum intended load-carrying capacity, and intended use of the scaffold.

          5. The correct procedures for erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing, inspection, and maintaining the type of scaffold in question.

          6. PPE and proper procedures.

          7. Fall protection.

          8. Material handling.

          9. Access.

          10. Working platforms.

          11. Foundations.

          12. Guys, ties, and braces.

          13. Any other pertinent requirements of this subpart.

        2. Tubular Welded Frame Scaffolds.

          1. Specific regulations and standards.

          2. Components.

          3. Parts inspection.

          4. Erection/dismantling planning.

          5. Guys, ties and braces.

          6. Fall protection.

          7. General safety.

          8. Access and platforms.

          9. Erection/dismantling procedures.

          10. Rolling scaffold assembly.

          11. Putlogs.

        3. Tube and Clamp Scaffolds and System Scaffolds.

          1. Specific regulation and standards.

          2. Components.

          3. Parts inspection.

          4. Erection/dismantling planning.

          5. Guys, ties and braces.

          6. Fall protection.

          7. General safety.

          8. Access and platforms.

          9. Erection/dismantling procedures.

          10. Buttresses, cantilevers and bridges.

      5. Associates Who Need Retraining - When there is reason to believe that one of our associates lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving the erection, use or dismantling of scaffolds, the associate shall be re-trained so that the requisite proficiency is regained. Retraining shall be done in at least the following situations:

        1. Where changes at the worksite present a hazard about which the associate has not been previously trained.

        2. Where changes in the types of scaffolds, fall protection, falling object protection, or other equipment present a hazard about which an associate has not been previously trained.

        3. Where inadequacies in an affected associate’s work involving scaffolds indicate that the associate has not retained the requisite proficiency.


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