A-to-Z Index

Juno Regina, Behind the Scenes

Juno Regina

Juno Regina, Roman Imperial Period, marble, 200 CE

For many years this work was known as Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom.  This was not only because of the visual association with the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor (that was based on this ancient Roman goddess), but because of the presence of the rod in the statues upraised right hand.  This rod was used in the ceremony Manumissio vindicta (Freedom by the Rod) in which a master freed a slave.  However because of the lack of a pileus (a felt hat that was the primary symbol of Libertas) as well as the association of the drapery and stance with other works of Juno Regina, it was renamed.  The Madison Art Collection wishes to thank the careful eye of Mr. Charles Maddox and his art history students for their observations and research on this statue.

Question: What does a pileus look like?

Answer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pileus_(hat)