Juno Regina, Roman Imperial Period, marble, 200 CE
Juno Regina, or Juno the Queen, protected the Roman people. With her husband Jupiter and his daughter Minerva, the three were the Capitoline Triad, a divine family that had been worshipped since Rome’s Etruscan founding in 753 BCE. Juno Regina represented the physical land of the city as well as the women who lived there. It is believed that in Etruscan times queens of city-states, as the embodiment of Juno, must grant their approval before a king could be appointed. If true, this would explain the prominent role of women in this state cult, a tradition that continued through the ludi saeculares under the rule of Augustus.