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Chemistry

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

CHEM 100. Chemistry Today.
3 credits.
Provides the background necessary to understand how chemistry affects our daily lives. An enriched overview of the fundamental principles of chemistry is followed by applications to topics of current interest. A high school science background is assumed. Not available for major or minor credit in chemistry.

*CHEM 120. Concepts of Chemistry.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
A one-semester introduction to the fundamental principles, laws and applications of chemistry. Examples relating to the health sciences are emphasized. Not available for major or minor credit in chemistry.

CHEM 120L. Concepts of Chemistry Laboratory.
1 credit. Offered fall and spring.
A one-semester introduction to laboratory work which illustrates the fundamental principles, laws and applications of chemistry discussed in CHEM 120. Experiments relating to the health sciences are emphasized. Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 120.

*CHEM 131. General Chemistry I.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
The first of a two-course general chemistry sequence for science majors. It is designed to introduce students to basic chemical concepts including atomic structure, periodic properties of the elements, nomenclature, basic stoichiometry, theories related to reactivity and bonding, and the behavior of materials. The laboratory and lecture portions of CHEM 131 must be taken concurrently. Chemistry majors take 135L rather than 131L.

CHEM 132. General Chemistry II.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
A course designed to examine the mechanisms by which chemists obtain information about reacting systems. Major concepts covered include: chemical reactivity, chemical equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics and kinetics. Prerequisites: Grades of "C-" or higher in CHEM 131 and either CHEM 131L or CHEM 135L. Corequisite: CHEM 132L or 136L (chemistiry majors take 136L).

CHEM 131L*-132L. General Chemistry Laboratories.
1 credit each semester. Offered fall and spring.
These laboratory courses are designed to complement and supplement the CHEM 131-132 lecture courses. The laboratory and lecture portions must be taken concurrently. Chemistry majors are to take CHEM 135L and 136L. Prerequisites for CHEM 132L: Grades of "C-" or higher in CHEM 131 and either CHEM 131L or CHEM 135L.

CHEM 135L. Special General Chemistry Laboratory.
1 credit. Offered fall.
An enriched laboratory course designed primarily for chemistry majors. Corequisite: CHEM 131.

CHEM 136L. Special General Chemistry Laboratory.
2 credits. Offered spring.
An enriched laboratory course that includes special topics and experiments not presented in the regular CHEM 132 laboratory. Prerequisites: Grades of "C-" or higher in CHEM 131 and either CHEM 131L or 135L. Corequisite or prerequisite: CHEM 132.

CHEM 241. Organic Chemistry I.
3 credits. Offered fall.
The major objective for this course is to teach the modern method of scientific problem solving using organic compounds as models. Emphasis will be on the chemical language (nomenclature and terminology), molecular electronic concepts, theories of organic reactions, stereochemistry and structure elucidation of organic compounds. Prerequisite: Grade of "C-" or higher in CHEM 132.

CHEM 241L. Concepts of Organic Chemistry Laboratory.
1 credit. Offered fall.
Laboratory work will include training in the techniques of organic chemistry, preparation of compounds and some organic qualitative analysis. Prerequisite or Corequisite: CHEM 241.

CHEM 242. Organic Chemistry II.
3 credits. Offered spring.
The major objective for this course is to teach the modern method of scientific problem solving using organic compounds as models. Emphasis will be on the chemical language (nomenclature and terminology), molecular electronic concepts, theories of organic reactions, stereochemistry and structure elucidation of organic compounds. Prerequisite: Completion of CHEM 241 with a grade of "C-"or higher.

CHEM 242L. Organic Chemistry Laboratory.
2 credits. Offered spring.
This course will present laboratory techniques and experiments associated with organic chemistry, including an introduction to synthesis, spectroscopic methods, chromatographic techniques and some qualitative organic analysis. Corequisite: CHEM 242. Prerequisites: A grade of "C-"or higher in CHEM 241.

CHEM 260. Concepts of Biochemistry.
3 credits. Offered spring.
A brief survey of the principal constituents of living cells, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids, with emphasis on their synthesis and transformations in vivo. Intermediary metabolism and protein replication will be stressed. (The laboratory and lecture portions must be taken concurrently; not available for major credit.) Credit may not be earned in both BIO 220 and CHEM 260. Prerequisite: CHEM 241 and CHEM 241L.

CHEM 260L. Concepts of Biochemistry Laboratory.
1 credit. Offered spring.
The laboratory work will comprise experiments demonstrating some of the pertinent reactions including those of analytical value. Corequisites: CHEM 260. Prerequisites: CHEM 260.

CHEM 270. Inorganic Chemistry I.
3 credits. Offered spring.
A survey of the chemistry of the elements and modern theories of bonding. Prerequisite: A grade of "C-"or higher in CHEM 241.

CHEM/PHYS/MATS 275. An Introduction to Materials Science.
3 credits. Offered fall.
An introduction to materials science with emphasis on general properties of materials. Topics will include crystal structure, extended and point defects, and mechanical, electrical, thermal and magnetic properties of metals, ceramics, electronic materials, composites and organic materials Prerequisites: CHEM 131 and PHYS 150 or PHYS 250 or ISAT 212 or permission of the instructor.

CHEM 280. An Alternative Lower-Division Chemistry Experience.
1-4 credits. Offered fall and spring.
This course will provide a mechanism for offering a nontraditional, lower-division, lecture and/or laboratory course. It will be offered only with the approval of the full-time teaching faculty. No course will be offered more than three times under the 280 designation. Students may repeat CHEM 280 for credit when course content changes.

CHEM 287L. Integrated Inorganic/Organic Laboratory.
2 credits. Offered fall.
An enriched, integrated introduction to the laboratory procedures associated with inorganic and organic chemistry. Topics include apparatus design and construction, synthesis, separation methods, spectroscopic analysis and application of computers in the laboratory. Corequisite: CHEM 241. Prerequisite: CHEM 241.

CHEM 288L. Integrated Inorganic/Organic Laboratory.
2 credits. Offered spring.
An enriched, integrated introduction to the laboratory procedures associated with inorganic and organic chemistry. Topics include apparatus design and construction, synthesis, separation methods, spectroscopic analysis and application of computers in the laboratory. Corequisites: CHEM 270 and a grade of "C-"or better in CHEM 241. Prerequisites: CHEM 270 and a grade of "C-"or better in CHEM 241.

CHEM 325. Chemical Hazards and Laboratory Safety.
1 credit. Offered fall.
A brief introduction to physical and chemical hazards which may be encountered in a laboratory setting. Methods of personal protection will be emphasized.

CHEM 331. Physical Chemistry I.
3 credits. Offered spring.
A study of thermodynamics, solutions, kinetics and macromolecules with applications of chemical and biological problems. Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 236.

CHEM 336L. Applied Physical Chemistry Laboratory.
1 credit. Offered spring.
A laboratory course which emphasizes the applied experimental aspects of physical chemistry. Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 331.

CHEM 351. Analytical Chemistry.
4 credits. Offered fall.
The total analysis concept is introduced and developed. This framework encompasses the areas of experiment design, sample collection and treatment, and statistical evaluation of results, as well as standard analysis techniques. Prerequisite: CHEM 132.

CHEM 352. Instrumental Analysis.
3 credits. Offered spring.
This course emphasizes the application of instrumental techniques to the quantitative determination of chemical composition. Both instrument theory and practical applications are presented. Prerequisites: CHEM 351 and either MATH 205 or MATH 235.

CHEM 352L. Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.
2 credits. Offered spring.
This course will introduce students to the methodology and technology associated with the design and use of chemical instrumentation. Students perform experiments that illustrate the theoretical principles associated with instrument designs and the application of instruments to the solution of qualitative and quantitative analysis problems. Corequisite: CHEM 352.

CHEM 354. Environmental Chemistry Field Camp.
3 credits. Offered summer.
Fundamentals of environmental chemistry with laboratory and field trip components. The basic chemical principles of environmental problems are studied. Field trips and laboratory work on real samples are integrated with lecture material. Prerequisite: CHEM 241 or permission of instructor.

CHEM/GEOL 355. Geochemistry of Natural Waters.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Study of chemical theory and reactions important in natural water systems. The role of atmospheric, geologic and biological inputs in determining the geochemistry of streams, rivers and oceans. Prerequisites: CHEM 131 and CHEM 132 or equivalent.

CHEM/BIO 361. Biochemistry I.
3 credits. Offered fall.
An introduction to the molecules and chemical reactions of living systems. Structure and function of important classes of biomolecules are explored and the relationship of structure to function is stressed. Basic metabolic sequences are discussed. Prerequisites: Grade of "C-"or higher in CHEM 241 and permission of instructor.

CHEM 362. Biochemistry II.
3 credits. Offered spring.
A continuation of CHEM 361 including metabolic regulation, protein biosynthesis, analytical methods and isolation of biomolecules. Prerequisite: CHEM 361 or permission of the instructor.

CHEM 366L. Biochemistry Laboratory.
2 credits. Offered spring.
An introduction to laboratory techniques and experimental approaches associated with modern biochemistry. Isolation and characterization of enzymes and other biomolecules are emphasized. Prerequisite: CHEM 361.

CHEM 390A,B. Problems in Chemistry.
1-3 credits, repeatable for a total of 4 credits. Offered fall and spring.
A project is undertaken dealing with some aspect of chemistry under the guidance of a faculty adviser.

CHEM 395. Perspectives in Chemistry.
1 credit. Offered fall.
A description of the technical and nontechnical capabilities expected of a university graduate who enters industry, government or academia is presented. The student is introduced to the various laws governing the chemical industry as well as to the fields of toxicology and environmental health. Experts in various disciplines discuss current topics of concern to the chemistry and biology student.

CHEM 432. Physical Chemistry II.
3 credits. Offered fall.
A study of atomic and molecular energy levels and structure as interpreted by quantum theory. Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 236 and PHYS 150 or PHYS 250.

CHEM 438L. Physical Chemistry Laboratory.
2 credits. Offered fall.
A laboratory course which emphasizes the application of various physical measurement techniques as a means of obtaining data to test fundamental chemical theory. Corequisite: CHEM 432.

CHEM 440. Intermediate Organic Chemistry.
3 credits. Offered fall.
An advanced study of the theory of organic chemistry as applied to chemical reactions and synthetic methods. Such topics as reaction mechanisms, spectroscopy and stereochemistry will be included. Prerequisite: CHEM 242.

CHEM 445. Polymer Chemistry.
4 credits. Offered spring.
A study of the synthesis and characterization of macromolecules. Polymer chemistry is discussed in a manner that focuses most attention on the properties of macromolecules that can be understood at the molecular level. Prerequisite: CHEM 242.

CHEM 450. Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry.
3 credits. Offered spring.
A study of the fundamentals of radioactivity in chemistry. Topics include the effects of radiation on matter, measurement of radiation, activation analysis, tracer studies and the nuclear fuel cycle. Applications of radioactive materials and radiation in industry and medicine will be described. Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and PHYS 250 or permission of the instructor.

CHEM 450L. Laboratory for Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry.
1 credit. Offered spring.
A laboratory course designed to demonstrate the topics covered in CHEM 450. Corequisite: CHEM 450. Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and PHYS 250 or permission of the instructor.

CHEM/PHYS 455. Lasers and Their Applications to Physical Sciences.
3 credits. Offered spring.
An introduction to both the theoretical and practical aspects of lasers and their applications in the physical sciences. Prerequisite: PHYS 270, CHEM 331 or permission of the instructor.

CHEM 470. Inorganic Chemistry II.
3 credits. Offered fall.
A study of selected topics in the field of advanced inorganic chemistry. Prerequisite: A grade of "C-"or higher in CHEM 270. Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 331.

CHEM 480. Selected Topics in Chemistry.
1-4 credits each semester. Offered fall and spring.
This course is designed to allow an in-depth study of specific topics in chemistry selected according to student and faculty interests.

CHEM 481. Literature and Seminar I.
1 credit. Offered fall.
Provides instruction in methods of abstracting specific information from the body of chemical literature. Attendance at regularly scheduled department seminars is required.

CHEM 482. Literature and Seminar II.
1 credit. Offered spring.
Provides practice in preparing and presenting a literature-based seminar and paper on a chemical topic. Attendance at regularly scheduled department seminars is required. Prerequisite: CHEM 481 or permission of the instructor.

CHEM 494. Internship in Chemistry.
1-2 credits, May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Students participate in research or applied chemistry outside of the university. A proposal must be approved prior to registration, and a final paper will be completed.

CHEM 497A, B, C. Undergraduate Chemical Research.
2-4 credits, repeatable for a total of 6 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Research in a selected area of chemistry, as arranged with and approved by a faculty research adviser the semester prior to registration.

CHEM 499. Honors.
6 credits. Offered fall and spring.

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Chinese

Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures and Cultures

CHIN 101. Elementary Chinese I.
4 credits. Offered fall.
The fundamentals of Mandarin Chinese through listening, speaking, reading and writing. Practice in pronunciation and development of comprehension. One hour's work a week in the language laboratory.

CHIN 102. Elementary Chinese II.
4 credits. Offered spring.
The fundamentals of Mandarin Chinese through listening, speaking, reading and writing. Practice in pronunciation and development of comprehension. Requires one hour of work a week in the language laboratory. If a student has had two or more years of the language in high school, he/she will not receive credit for the course. Prerequisite: CHIN 101.

CHIN 111. Intensive Chinese I.
6 credits. Offered May or June.
The fundamentals of Chinese through intensive listening, speaking, reading and writing. This four-week course is the equivalent of CHIN 101-102.

CHIN 212. Intensive Chinese II.
6 credits. Offered May or June.
The fundamentals of Chinese through intensive listening, speaking, reading and writing at the intermediate level. This four-week course is the equivalent of CHIN 231-232. Prerequisite CHIN 102 or 111 or permission of the instructor.

CHIN 231 Intermediate Chinese I.
3 credits. Offered fall.
A thorough review of first year grammar, vocabulary building, conversation, composition and reading. Prerequisite: CHIN 102 or permission of the instructor.

CHIN 232. Intermediate Chinese II.
3 credits. Offered spring.
A thorough review of grammar, vocabulary building, conversation, composition and reading. Prerequisite: CHIN 231 or permission of the instructor.

CHIN 300. Chinese Grammar and Communication.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Intensive training in grammatical structures and their applications to oral and written conversation. Instruction is in Chinese. Prerequisite: CHIN 232 or equivalent.

CHIN 320. Chinese Oral and Written Communication.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Intensive training in the use of modern, everyday Chinese with emphasis on conversation and composition. Readings in Chinese will provide a context for discussion and writing. Prerequisite: CHIN 300.

CHIN 397. Intensive Reading and Writing in Chinese I.
3 credits. Offered fall.
This course is intended for students with native or near native listening and speaking ability in Madarin Chinese. The major goal of this course is to help students intensively develop proficiency in reading and writing based on their competence in listening and speaking. Students are expected to appropriately express their ideas in writing on a wide range of topics and achieve reading competence. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

CHIN 398. Intensive Reading and Writing in Chinese II.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Continuation of intensive training in the reading and writing of modern Mandarin Chinese. Instruction is in Chinese.

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Classics

Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures and Cultures

CLAS 100. Latin and Greek Roots of English Words.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Intensive study of Latin and Greek word-roots, prefixes and suffixes in the forms they take in English words. An English vocabulary-development course for students with no knowledge of Latin or Greek. Does not count toward licensure in Latin.

CLAS 265. The Individual and Society in Ancient Greece and Rome.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Discussion of literary and historical sources that reflect the attitudes and values of individuals in various social classes. All readings are in English.

CLAS 266. Greek and Roman Classics in Translation.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Discussion of the writings that illustrate the cultural values and intellectual attitudes which constitute the most important legacy of Classical civilization. All readings are in English.

CLAS 337. Human Values: The Classical Tradition.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Discussion of human values and the human condition reflected in writings from the eighth century B.C. to the present day. Does not count toward licensure in Latin. All readings are in English.

CLAS 360. Topics in Greek and Roman Culture.
3 credits. Offered once a year.
A study of selected topics in the culture of Ancient Greece and Rome. May be repeated for credit with change of topics.

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College of Business

College of Business

COB 191. Business Statistics.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
The application of statistical methods to business. Introduces data presentation, descriptive statistics, probability, sampling, estimation and hypothesis testing. Emphasis is on using spreadsheet tools and functions of statistical analysis. Prerequisite: MATH 155, MATH 156 or sufficient score on the Mathematics Placement Exam.

COB 202. Interpersonal Skills.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
An applied course consisting of experiential exercises followed by class discussion. Cases are used as learning activities where the instructor acts as a facilitator to learning. Essential theory emanates from class discussions with a student-based rather than instructor-based format. Theory and application are intertwined by means of student self-assessment exercises and group discussion. Prerequisite: Open only to sophomore business majors.

COB 204. Computer Information Systems.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
An introduction to computer-based information systems. Emphasis is placed on the role of computers in business and society, computer hardware and software, analysis, design and implementation of information systems, computer ethics, and collaboration using computers. Students will create databases and collaborate using computer-based tools.

COB 218. Legal Environment of Business.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
A study of the law as a means of social, political and economic change. The American legal system from the standpoint of its sources and philosophy with special emphasis on business relations and the role of government in affecting them.

COB 241. Financial Accounting.
3 credits. Offered fall, spring and summer.
The role of financial data in contemporary society; the problems of measuring and reporting income, assets, liabilities and equities; interpretation of financial statements. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and declared business major.

COB 242. Managerial Accounting.
3 credits. Offered fall, spring and summer.
The attention-directing and problem-solving functions of accounting in relation to current planning and control, evaluation of performance, special decisions, and long-range planning. Prerequisite: COB 241.

COB 291. Introduction to Management Science.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
The application of quantitative modeling and analysis to decision making. Introduces linear programming, decision theory, queuing, simulation and forecasting methods. Emphasis is on implementing spreadsheet models for business applications. Prerequisites: COB 191 and MATH 205 or equivalent.

COB 300A. Integrated Functional Systems: Management.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
COB 300A is the management component of an integrated learning experience consisting of four courses, taken concurrently, which introduces the fundamental conceptual tools of management, finance, operation and marketing in such a way as to establish their mutual relevance and interdependence. Students work in small project teams on tasks designed to require the application in concert of conceptual tools from each of the function areas. Prerequisites: Completion of all required 100- and 200-level B.B.A. core courses, junior standing (56 hours) and formal admission to the College of Business.

COB 300B. Integrated Functional Systems: Finance.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
COB 300B is the finance component of an integrated learning experience consisting of four courses, taken concurrently, which introduces the fundamental conceptual tools of management, finance, operation and marketing in such a way as to establish their mutual relevance and interdependence. Students work in small project teams on tasks designed to require the application in concert of conceptual tools from each of the function areas. Prerequisites: Completion of all required 100- and 200-level B.B.A. core courses, junior standing (56 hours) and formal admission to the College of Business.

COB 300C. Integrated Functional Systems: Operations.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
COB 300C is the operations component of an integrated learning experience consisting of four courses, taken concurrently, which introduces the fundamental conceptual tools of management, finance, operation and marketing in such a way as to establish their mutual relevance and interdependence. Students work in small project teams on tasks designed to require the application in concert of conceptual tools from each of the function areas. Prerequisites: Completion of all required 100- and 200-level B.B.A. core courses, junior standing (56 hours) and formal admission to the College of Business.

COB 300D. Integrated Functional Systems: Marketing.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
COB 300D is the marketing component of an integrated learning experience consisting of four courses, taken concurrently, which introduces the fundamental conceptual tools of management, finance, operation and marketing in such a way as to establish their mutual relevance and interdependence. Students work in small project teams on tasks designed to require the application in concert of conceptual tools from each of the function areas. Prerequisites: Completion of all required 100- and 200-level B.B.A. core courses, junior standing (56 hours) and formal admission to the College of Business.

COB 301. European Integration, Culture and History.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
This course is designed to complement the COB 300 A-D or European marketing minor when taught as part of the semester in Antwerp, Belgium program. COB 301 will only be offered as part of the semester in Antwerp program. Students will study European integration in the classroom and visit governmental institutions, historical places and cultural events associated with course content. Prerequisites: Requires acceptance to the semester in Antwerp program. Must be taken as a corequisite with COB 300 or courses for the European marketing minor. Cannot be used as an elective to fulfill any CoB major or any other minor.

COB 487. Strategic Management.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Strategic management is designed to be the capstone course for seniors completing their undergraduate studies in the various functional areas of business administration. The course is comprehensive and structured to build on the foundational knowledge students have gained through completing the interdisciplinary COB 300, Integrated Functional Systems, learning experience and from their respective concentrations. Prerequisites COB 300 and completion of one full academic semester after completing COB 300.

COB 490. Special Studies in Business Administration.
1-3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Designed to give capable students an opportunity to complete a faculty supervised independent study apart from a specific major. Prerequisite: Permission from the Associate Dean for Student Services.

COB 491. Peer Advisor Training.
0 credits. Offered fall and spring.
This block course will provide peer advisor trainees with the information necessary to give guidance to their peers in understanding various university and college academic policies and procedures and the university resources available to address academic questions and issues. Cannot be applied to any College of Business major or minor. Prerequisites: Junior standing (78 credit hours) and approval of the Associate Dean for Student Services one month prior to registration.

COB 492. Peer Advising.
2 credit hours per semester, limit of 4 credit hours in total. Offered fall and spring.
Practicum in advising focuses on College of Business students providing guidance to their peers in understanding various university and college academic procedures and policies, as well as offering knowledgeable referrals to appropriate university resources. May be taken twice for up to four credit hours. Cannot be applied to any CoB major or minor. Prerequisites: Senior standing and successful completion of COB 491.

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Communication Sciences and Disorders

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders

CSD 200. Introduction to Communication Disorders.
3 credits.
This course is an introduction to human communication, the most advanced of neurological functions which separates humans from all other species. It surveys both normal and communicatively disordered populations served by audiologists, speech-language pathologists, educators and neuropsychologists.

CSD 207. Phonetics.
3 credits.
Instruction in various transcription techniques for phonetic and phonemic analysis of speech production.

CSD 208. Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear and Voice Mechanism.
3 credits.
A detailed study of the anatomy and physiology of the speech mechanism.

CSD 209. Acoustics of Hearing and Speech.
3 credits.
Introduction to acoustics of speech and hearing. Introduction to physical acoustics, sound generation and transmission, resonance, speech acoustics, and speech perception.

CSD 300. Language Development.
3 credits.
The study of language acquisition, development, structure and function in normal children. The development of language in all cultures and the universal nature of the developmental process is the foundation for continued study in speech-language hearing. Prerequisites: CSD 207, CSD 208 and CSD 209; Open to CSD majors only.

CSD 301. Audiology.
3 credits.
An introduction to the symptoms, causes and treatment of hearing disorders. Hearing test instrumentation and interpretation in clinical situations are emphasized. Prerequisites: CSD 207, CSD 208 and CSD 209 or permission of instructor.

CSD 314. Phonological and Language Disorders.
3 credits.
An introduction to phonological and language disorders in children and adults. Etiological and maintaining factors are discussed, and an overview of assessment and (re)habilitation procedures is presented. Prerequisite: CSD 300 or permission of instructor.

CSD 318. Aural Rehabilitation.
3 credits.
Concentrated attention is given to communication problems of the hearing handicapped. Aural rehabilitation is emphasized including lip reading and auditory training. Prerequisite: CSD 301 or permission of instructor.

CSD 412. Multicultural Topics in Communication Disorders.
3 credits.
This course will address considerations for effective service delivery to culturally and linguistically diverse populations. An overview of cultural characteristics will be provided with particular attention to specific minority populations. Discussion on speech and language variations in dialects, bilingualism and foreign accent, nonbiased assessment and strategies for enhancing communication with families from diverse cultures will be presented. Prerequisites: CSD 200, CSD 207, CSD 300, CSD 314.

CSD 415. Neuroanatomy and Neurogenic Communication Disorders.
3 credits.
Introduces neurogenic communication disorders from a neuroanatomical approach. Prerequisite: CSD 208 strongly recommended.

CSD 416. Organic Speech Disorders.
3 credits.
Clinical procedures in the areas of fluency, oral-facial and voice disorders are studied. Evaluative and remedial aspects are emphasized. Prerequisite: CSD 208.

CSD 420. Introduction to Sign Language.
3 credits.
Provides an introduction to American Sign Language, the deaf community and English-based signed systems.

CSD 421. Sign Language II.
3 credits.
Focuses on developing conversational skills of students whose core vocabulary and knowledge of the grammar and pragmatics of sign language are basic; distinguishes ASL from English sign systems. Prerequisite: CSD 420 or permission of the instructor.

CSD 444. Child Language Development and Disorders.
3 credits.
The study of normal language development in children, including an overview of the linguistic bases of language. Topics include the examination of the various manifestations of language disorders in children and the different strategies for intervention. This course does not meet the degree requirements for CSD majors.

CSD 470. Methods and Observation.
3 credits.
Directed observation and participation in practical experiences. Introduction to the clinical process in speech-language pathology. Practical clinical methodology will be emphasized. Prerequisites: Majors only; must have senior status to enroll and CSD 314.

CSD 471. Methods and Observation in Audiology.
3 credits.
An introduction to the clinical process in audiology via directed observation and participation in laboratory and patient interactions. Practical clinical methodology is emphasized. Majors only with interest in graduate study in audiology. Repeatable for credit up to six credits. Must have senior status to enroll. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

CSD 490. Special Studies in Communication Sciences and Disorders.
1-3 credits.
Provides students opportunity for independent study and/or small class instruction in elective topics.

CSD 499. Honors.
6 credits.
See catalog section "Graduation with Honors."

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Communication Studies

School of Communication Studies

SCOM 240. Introduction to Communication Theory.
2 credits.
Study of theories and models that inform understanding of human communication processes. Emphasis on the processes of theory building, comparison of theories, and the implications and application of theory to particular contexts. Consideration of role of communication in all human endeavors. The SCOM 241 lab and SCOM 240 lecture portions must be taken concurrently. Prerequisites: SCOM major declared or SCOM minor declared students only, and any GCOM course.

SCOM 241. Communication Theory Lab.
1 credit.
This lab is designed to complement and supplement the SCOM 240 lecture course. Students will discuss, write, and/or give presentations related to content covered in SCOM 240. The SCOM 241 lab and SCOM 240 lecture portions must be taken concurrently. Prerequisites: SCOM major declared or SCOM minor declared students only, and any GCOM course.

SCOM 242. Presentational Speaking.
3 credits.
Study of methods for preparing and presenting public speeches. Consideration of impromptu and extemporaneous speaking, sales speeches, business presentations and other special occasion speeches. Emphasis on performance and evaluation. Prerequisite: Any GCOM course.

SCOM 245. Signs, Symbols and Social Interaction.
3 credits.
The study of verbal and nonverbal communication as used in human interaction. Consideration given to the function of symbolic systems in self-concept development, the structuring of reality and social discourse. Attention is directed toward the use of signs and symbols by different ethnic groups, genders, age groups and geographic groups. Prerequisites: "SCOM Major Declared" or "SCOM Minor Declared" students only and any GCOM course.

SCOM 247. Small Group Communication.
3 credits.
Study of communication processes involved in solving problems when working with others in a small group context. Emphasis on concepts of roles, norms, leadership and decision making. Consideration of small group factors which influence problem-solving effectiveness. Prerequisite: Any GCOM course.

SCOM 248. Intercultural Communication.
3 credits.
The study of human communication in a variety of cultural settings and contexts. Emphasis on developing understanding and analytical skills regarding communication between people from different racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds in both domestic and international settings. Consideration of relevance and application to social, business and political environments.

SCOM 260. Introduction to Public Relations.
3 credits.
Study of basic principles and practices of public relations. Consideration given to public relations problems and pragmatic solutions utilizing oral, written and electronic communication media and skills.

SCOM 261. Public Relations Techniques I: Written.
3 credits.
Study of writing fundamentals for public relations. Emphasis on practice of effective writing for a variety of media (press releases, public service announcements, brochures, newsletters). Must be able to use word processing software. Prerequisite: SCOM 260.

SCOM 280. Introduction to Communication Research.
3 credits.
An introduction to the principles, methods and analysis techniques used in the field of communication. Emphasis on a broad-based understanding of the breadth of research in the field. Includes both qualitative and quantitative research methods, methods of literature review and research article critiques. Fulfills the College of Arts and Letters writing-intensive requirement for the major. Prerequisite: SCOM 240.

SCOM/ANTH 305. Language and Culture.
3 credits. Offered once a year.
An introduction to linguistic anthropology. Explores the complex relationships between language and culture through topics such as language acquisition and socialization; language, thought, and worldview; language and identity; multilingualism; how and why languages change; literacy; and the politics of language use and language ideologies.

SCOM 313. Topics in Communication Studies.
1-3 credits, repeatable to 6 credits.
Study of current topics and issues in human communication. Emphasis on contemporary theories, research and principles. Prerequisites: Nine hours of SCOM courses including SCOM 240 and one at 100 level.

SCOM 318. Practicum in Communication Studies.
1-6 credits.
Approved co-curricular activities and/or projects of a practical nature. No more than six hours of practicum credit can be applied to major. Proposals must be submitted to and approved by the course instructor for section and credit hour registration. To receive repeat credit, see school director. Prerequisite: Permission of the school director.

SCOM 320. Introduction to Interpersonal Communication.
3 credits.
Introduction to the fundamental theoretical perspectives in interpersonal communication. Emphasis on the effects of verbal and nonverbal messages on continuity and change in personal relationships. Consideration of the influence of cultural and social contexts on messages in relationships. Development of communication competence in diverse interpersonal contexts.

SCOM 330. Special Topics in Interpersonal Communication.
3 credits.
Study of current topics and issues in interpersonal communication. Topics and issues may include, but are not limited to aging and lifespan, communication education, computer mediated relations, deception and secrecy, friendship and rivalry, relationship rejuvenation, and social support. May be repeated up to six credits.

SCOM 331. Communication and Conflict.
3 credits.
Consideration of theories of conflict emerging from the communication discipline and application to different forms of conflict at all levels of human interaction. An examination of communication and varied responses to conflict in diverse situations. Emphasis on competencies required for successful management, intervention and transformation of conflict. Prerequisite: SCOM 240 or SCOM 245 recommended.

SCOM 332. Mediation.
3 credits.
Study of analysis and resolution of human conflict. Emphasis on role of mediation in dispute resolution focusing on relationships, language, listening and problem-solving techniques. Consideration of the interpersonal and group approaches to study of conflict management. Prerequisite: SCOM 240 or SCOM 245 recommended.

SCOM/JUST 333. Negotiations.
3 credits. Offered once every three years.
Provides an overview of negotiation as a strategy for dealing with conflict. Prerequisites: For Justice Studies Majors, JUST 200 and one other 200-level JUST course. For SCOM fully-admitted majors/minors: No prerequisites.

SCOM 334. Alternative Dispute Resolution.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Study of conflict resolution processes including mediation, arbitration and negotiation. Consideration of litigation and hybrid dispute processes such as summary jury trial, rent-a-judge and panel evaluation.

SCOM 335. Public Speaking Consulting.
3 credits. Offered Spring.
Students learn consulting techniques for all phases of public speaking process, including preparation, rehearsal and self-analysis. Specific emphases include the use of PowerPoint and other visual media in oral presentations, the history of communication centers, peer education and public speaking fundamentals. Based in contemporary human communication theory, Public Speaking Consulting provides experiential learning opportunities In JMU's Communication Center. Prerequisites: GCOM 121, GCOM 122 or GCOM 123.

SCOM 340. Principles and Processes of Interviewing.
3 credits.
Study of communication principles and processes in interviewing. Emphasis on interpersonal processes involved in interview structures, goals and question types. Development of communication skills in information, persuasive, counseling, health care, employment and performance appraisal interviews.

SCOM 341. Persuasion.
3 credits.
The study of oral communication as a determinant of attitudinal and behavioral change. Emphasis on the various kinds of artistic and nonartistic proofs as they apply to human motivation. Consideration of the application of behavioral research findings to persuasion. Prerequisites: SCOM 240 and SCOM 280.

SCOM 342. Argument and Advocacy.
3 credits.
The study of the techniques and principles of argument and advocacy. Emphasis on developing, presenting and defending a position on controversial questions. Consideration given to contemporary theories of public argument.

SCOM/WRTC 343. Contemporary Rhetorical Theory and Practice.
3 credits.
A research-infused course that familiarizes students with the major theories, trends and figures in contemporary rhetoric. Students will study the foundational principles of contemporary rhetorical theory and their applications in academic, professional and civic contexts. Prerequisite: GWRTC 103 or equivalent; For WRTC majors: WRTC 200, WRTC 210 or WRTC 211, and WRTC 220 and WRTC 240.

SCOM 344. Oral Interpretation.
3 credits.
Study and application of theories concerning the oral presentation of various forms of literature including prose, poetry, drama and nonfiction materials. Emphasis on performance. Prerequisite: Any 100-level GCOM course.

SCOM 345. Nonverbal Communication.
3 credits.
Study of nonverbal means through which people relate to one another. Consideration of the communicative effects of environment, facial expression, voice, posture, gestures, touch, distance and physical appearance. Prerequisite: Any 200-level SCOM course; SCOM 245 recommended.

SCOM 346. Free Speech in America.
3 credits.
The study of the evolution of freedom of speech in America from Colonial times to the present day. Emphasis on the major periods of development and on the role of courts in defining freedom of speech. Special consideration of contemporary freedom of speech controversies.

SCOM 347. Communication, Diversity and Popular Culture.
3 credits.
Study of the rhetorical dimension of communication practices and texts found in popular culture. Emphasis on issues of diversity as they are manifested in the communication practices found in popular culture. Emphasis on strategic communication choices in a diverse, multicultural world. Emphasis on critical thinking, self-reflexivity and communication analysis. Prerequisite: GCOM 121, GCOM 122 or GCOM 123.

SCOM/WMST 348. Communication and Gender.
3 credits.
Study of theories and research regarding the influence of gender in various human communication contexts, both public and private. Emphasis on the critical analysis of existing theory and empirical research and the potential competent uses of communication for social change. Prerequisite: Any 100-level GCOM course.

SCOM 349. Ethnographic Approaches to Communication Studies.
3 credits.
This course offers an examination of ethnographic approaches to interpersonal, organizational, health and public communication studies. Students will analyze the role of ethnographic methods and inductive research processes toward building theories of communication and assessing communication practices. Prerequisite: Any 100-level GCOM course or permission of instructor.

SCOM 350. Organizational Communication.
3 credits.
Students gain a complex understanding of organizing practices by investigating the evolution of how historical events have influenced organizational communication and managerial practices at work. Drawing upon communication theory, students analyze various organizational communication practices such as the management of workers, development of organizational culture, and interaction with larger systems. Learning is complemented by an experiential learning project.

SCOM/WRTC 351. Visual Rhetoric.
3 credits.
A study of the rhetorical foundations of visual and verbal arguments in academic disciplines and popular culture. Students will analyze and produce visual and verbal arguments in a variety of rhetorical contexts. Prerequisites: GWRTC 103 and any 100-level communication studies course or permission of the instructor.

SCOM 352. Communication and Social Movements.
3 credits.
A study of the use of communication in social movements. Emphasis on the types of communication used in social movements and on ways to produce and respond to such messages. This course examines a variety of different social movements within the political process including nonprofit organizations. Prerequisite: SCOM 240.

SCOM 353. American Political Culture and Communication.
3 credits.
Study of functions performed by communication in politics. Emphasis on a variety of communication forms and techniques used by advocates both in campaigning and governing. Consideration of contemporary campaigns and the role of communication in their successes and failures. Prerequisites: SCOM 240 and GPOSC 225 are recommended.

SCOM 354. Communication, Environment and Environmentalism.
3 credits.
An exploration of how messages and information about nature and the environment are communicated, focusing on persuasive efforts by institutions, corporations, environmental managers, lobbyists, scientific experts, politicians and citizens to describe and shape human interactions with the environment and each other. This course seeks to increase our understanding of the ways that these environmental discourses persuade (and fail to persuade) different publics.

SCOM 357. Youth, Communication and Culture.
3 credits.
Grounded in the cultural communication perspective, the course examines the relationship between communication, youth and popular culture. Defining youth as children, tweens, teens and college-aged young people, this course focuses on communication issues such as how youth are represented in various forms of popular culture; how they are defined by corporate discourse; how young people make sense of popular culture artifacts; and how they become cultural communicators as well as consumers.

SCOM 358. Business and Professional Communication Studies.
3 credits.
Students investigate the nuance and complexity of communication in modern organizational life. A portion of the class is dedicated to the skills involved in a competitive, successful career search. In addition, students develop the skills to become an ethical and effective organizational citizen. Prerequisite: Junior or senior status.

SCOM 361. Public Relations Techniques II: Visual.
3 credits.
Study of visual communication techniques for public relations. Survey of design principles and elements used for developing visually effective messages with an emphasis on publication design and production, photography, and computer-mediated presentations. Students should provide a camera and be familiar with desktop publishing and presentational software. Prerequisite: SCOM 261; open to SCOM public relations concentration students only.

SCOM 367. Advanced Public Relations Writing.
3 credits.
Offers advanced public relations students experience in the wide range of writing style and applications that are essential to successfully begin their professional careers. The course focuses on understanding and mastering action-oriented communication methods and best professional practices. Provides both a conceptual framework and in-depth training in advance techniques. Prerequisite: SCOM 261. open to SCOM public relations concentration students only.

SCOM 370. Introduction to Health Communication.
3 credits. Offered fall.
An introduction to the study of the theory and practice of communication in health- and medical-related fields. Emphasis on communication interaction between professional health providers and patients/clients. Consideration of strategies that promote effective communication between health/medical professionals and patients/clients. Prerequisite: Any 100-level GCOM course.

SCOM 371. Talking Through Tough Cases: Ethical Principles and Practices in Communication Studies.
3 credits.
Seminar study of current ethical dilemmas and various responses from a communication perspective. Explores theories, principles and practice of managing diverse positions and non-adversarial communication. Prerequisites: Six hours of SCOM courses including SCOM 240.

SCOM 372. Culture and Health Communication.
3 credits. Offered fall or spring.
This course explores how we define and study culture in health communication. Specifically this course compares the culture-centered approach to studying culture and health communication to the cultural sensitivity or culture as barrier model. In this course we apply various theoretical lenses to understand diverse health beliefs and engage in dialogue about our own health beliefs.

SCOM 381. Communication Criticism.
3 credits.
Study of methods of evaluating acts of persuasive communication. Emphasis on developing and applying appropriate standards to determine effectiveness of persuasion. Consideration of criticism of advertising, mass media, public speaking and other forms of persuasive communication. Prerequisites: SCOM 280 and any 100-level GCOM course.

SCOM 383. Communication Research Methodologies.
3 credits.
The study of research methods in various areas of communication. Emphasis on ability to research literature and criticize research design. Prerequisites: SCOM 280 and nine hours of SCOM courses.

SCOM 385. Qualitative Communication Research Methods.
3 credits.
Study of interpretive approaches to communication research using a variety of qualitative research methods, including field observation, qualitative interviewing, focus groups, narrative analysis and discourse analysis. Students will plan and conduct an exploratory qualitative study, prepare a written research report including a literature review and make a research presentation. Prerequisite: SCOM 280.

SCOM 386. Communication Survey Research.
3 credits.
Consideration of survey problems and methods unique to communication. Emphasis on using survey research methodology in communication audits, public relations problems and public opinion polling. Prerequisite: SCOM 280.

SCOM 390. Directed Projects.
2-3 credits, repeatable to 6 credits.
Supervised projects related to any aspect of human communication. Emphasis on original individual or group programs beyond the school's usual curricular or co-curricular offerings. Formal report(s) required for awarding of credit. Prerequisite: Permission of the school director.

SCOM 391. Communication Career Strategies.
1 credit.
The study of strategies for implementing a job/internship campaign. Emphasis on conducting a self assessment, locating job and internship openings, writing resumes, cover letters and follow-up messages, conducting informational interviews, networking, interviewing techniques, and marketing a communication studies degree. Prerequisite: 12 credit hours in SCOM.

SCOM 394. Core Assessment in Communication Studies.
0 credits.
Students participate in testing, interviews and other assessment activities as approved by the School of Communication Studies. Grades will be assigned on a credit/no credit basis. Prerequisites: SCOM 240, SCOM 242, SCOM 245, SCOM 280 and SCOM 341.

SCOM 395. Study Abroad Seminar.
3-6 credits.
Intensive examination of specialized international communication topics arranged in cooperation with a faculty member. Prior arrangements must be made with the program director. Prerequisite: Permission of the program director and school director required.

SCOM/ WMST/WRTC 420. Feminist Rhetorics.
3 credits.
Surveys key women figures in classical and contemporary rhetorical traditions and challenges the strategies used to historicize this tradition from feminist perspectives. Explores diverse feminist rhetorical discourses informed by race, sexual orientation, ethnicity and social class. Prerequisites: GWRTC 103 or equivalent and junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor.

SCOM 425. Leadership Communication.
3 credits. Offered spring semester.
This course promotes understanding and development of organizational leadership through investigation of theory and analysis. Students explore varied and sometimes contradictory models of leadership and learn how to articulate and express ideas that encourage others to advocate for and bring about positive change. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

SCOM 431. Legal Communication.
3 credits.
Study of the role of communication in the legal process. Emphasis on communication questions/ problems which litigants, lawyers, judges and jurors face. Consideration of legal argument, negotiation, trial advocacy, decision making and communication technologies.

SCOM 432. Senior Seminar in Conflict Analysis and Intervention.
3 credits.
An advanced seminar, capstone course open to all junior and senior SCOM students, and required for conflict majors and minors. Special topics are developed to include research in conflict analysis and intervention, current trends in dispute resolution, evolving practices in conflict transformation, peacemaking, and mediation, as well as other relevant and timely issues.

SCOM 440. Family Communication.
3 credits.
Study of the processes and functions of family communication, including managing dating, marital, parent-child and intergenerational relations. Theoretical and applied examination of communication and cultural processes that define and construct family structures, systems and boundaries. Course also examines histories of family communication as constructed in popular culture. Prerequisite: SCOM 280.

SCOM/ANTH/HIST 441. Oral History and Social Justice.
3 credits. Offered spring semester.
This course will explore the theoretical and methodological questions that have been raised in the field of oral history related to evidence and objectivity, personal and collective memory, narrative structure, ethics and social justice. Throughout the course students will conduct multiple interviews in the Shenandoah Valley and prepare a final presentation based on this material. Prerequisite: HIST 395 or permission of instructor.

SCOM 448. Seminar in Cultural Communication.
3 credits.
Advanced study of theory and research in cultural communication and intercultural contact. Consideration of communication practices that construct and arrange social and ethnic identities within specific contexts. Prerequisites: SCOM 248 and SCOM 349.

SCOM 449. Communication Training.
3 credits.
Students learn to analyze organizations to manage and solve communication problems and improve organizational life. Through experiential learning students will become familiar with strategies and activities designed to help others improve their communication skills. Students gain experience leading meetings, engaging an audience, collaborating, and facilitating difficult conversations. Prerequisites: SCOM 242, junior standing and 12 hours in speech communication, or permission of the instructor.

SCOM 450. Advanced Studies in Organizational Communication.
3 credits. Offered spring semester.
Advanced studies in organizational communication is the concentration's capstone. Through case studies, readings, discussions, and experiential activities students investigate complex issues that emerge for organizations and their members. Students apply theoretical knowledge and skills as they develop organizational communication concepts to analyze a communication problem. Expertise is showcased through an applied field study in an active organization. Prerequisite: SCOM 350 and senior standing.

SCOM 453. Political Campaign Communication.
3 credits. Offered fall semester.
An advanced study of communication techniques, procedures and processes as they relate to political campaign communication. Emphasis upon the design, execution and production of various communication messages. Consideration of the impact and utilization of various technologies in political campaigns.

SCOM 460. Public Relations Management.
3 credits.
Intensive study and research of advanced communication management skills, theory and principles using case and field studies. Special attention to systematic and ethical management of communication and action affecting an organization's internal and external publics. Prerequisites: SCOM 261 and SCOM 341.

SCOM 461. Public Relations Campaigns.
3 credits.
The capstone course for the public relations program of study. Students further their theoretical understanding and practical skills in the processes of research, planning, communication/action, and evaluation by conducting campaigns for specific organizations. Prerequisites: SCOM 261, SCOM 361 or SCOM 367, SCOM 383 or SCOM 386 and SCOM 460.

SCOM 463. International Public Relations.
3 credits.
Explores the special professional challenges and opportunities arising from the dynamic global public relations developments characterizing the beginning of this century, taking into account social, economic, political, legal, and cultural factors as well as new media developments. Prerequisite: SCOM 260; Corequisite: SCOM 460.

SCOM/WRTC 465. Rhetoric of Environmental Science and Technology.
3 credits.
This course offers an advanced study of the way the public receives, makes sense of, and influences scientific and technical information about environmental issues. Implications of these processes on environmental policy will be analyzed. Readings and assignments will concentrate on the interactions between technical and public spheres of communication, with an in-depth examination of the way the media facilitates the transfer of information between scientific communities and public audiences. Prerequisites: GWRTC 103 or equivalent and junior or senior standing, or permission of the
instructor
.

SCOM 467. Global Public Relations Seminar.
3 credits.
Advanced experimental learning approach combined with relevant theory and research provides students with an opportunity to enhance critical global communication knowledge and skills urgently required to meet this century's cultural, social, political and economic challenges. Students team with peers at universities worldwide in developing comprehensive strategic management programs. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

SCOM 470. Health Communication Campaigns.
3 credits.
The study of advanced theory and practice of communication in health related fields. Consideration of topics relating to communication issues which affect communication interaction between health professionals and client/patients. Emphasis on the use of communication in health communication campaigns. Prerequisite: SCOM 370.

SCOM/SMAD/POSC 472. Media and Politics.
3 credits.
A study of the media's role in political campaigns, concentrating on past/present election, the media's role in covering political parties and coverage of the governing process. Discussion of electronic and print will occur. Topics to be examined include campaign videos, CSPAN, political ads, editorial cartoons, TV debates, convention coverage and radio talk show commentary.

SCOM 490. Special Studies in Communication Studies.
1-3 credits.
An independent study for students to pursue individual research under the guidance of faculty. Limited to senior communication studies majors in good standing with permission of school director.

SCOM 495. Internship in Communication Studies.
3-6 credits, repeatable to 6 credits.
Credit for the application of communication theory and skills in a directed, on-the-job learning experience. Open only to communication studies majors who meet specific criteria (see the school website). Up to six credits may be applied as electives in the communication studies' major. Prerequisite: Permission of the school director.

SCOM 499. Honors in Communication Studies.
6 credits.
Year course. Prerequisite: Permission of the school director.

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Computer Information Systems

College of Business

CIS/IA 210. Introduction to Global Competitive Intelligence.
3 credits. Offered fall.
This course will focus on the tools and methods for the analysis and interpretation of business data related to external competitors and internal performance management in a global environment. Students will develop skills in data retrieval, manipulation, analysis and interpretation. Not open to students pursuing a major or minor in CIS. Not open to any major in the COB other than International Business.

CIS 221. Principles of Programming.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Instruction and practical experience in writing computer programs using object oriented design and event driven logic. Projects will include the use of control structures (sequence, selection and iteration) as well as file and array processing logic. Students will be required to demonstrate competency in the design of object-oriented solutions and the implementation of event driven logic to solve real-world business problems. Not open to students who have taken CS 239.

CIS 301. Operating Systems and Server Administration.
1 credit. Offered fall and spring.
This is a lab-based course that introduces the student to operating systems and server administration in a business environment. Students will learn the basic functions of an operating system through the hands-on use of Linux and Windows. Additionally, students will acquire hands-on server administration skills in order to better understand the operational and security demands of business applications. Prerequisites for declared CIS minors: COB 204 and junior or senior standing. Prerequisite or corequisite for CIS majors: COB 300.

CIS 304. Enterprise Architecture.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
This course explores the analysis, design, implementation, evaluation and management of enterprise IT solutions. Emphasis will be placed on planning and modeling the enterprise. Topics include functional modeling, physical architecture design, security planning and recovery issues, project management, emerging technologies, and ethical, financial and global considerations. Prerequisite or corequisite: COB 300 or admission to the CIS minor.

CIS/CS 320. Computing and Telecommunications Networks.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
This course focuses on the underlying principles of telecommunications and how these principles are deployed to provide efficient and secure networks for providing voice, data, and video services. Emphasis is placed on understanding basic routing, switching, and data aggregation techniques; information security strategies; and understanding how basic information systems applications utilize telecommunications services. Prerequisite for CS majors: CS 139. Corequisite for CIS majors and minors: CIS 304. Prerequisite for ISAT majors: ISAT 252.

CIS 330. Database Design and Application.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
A study of the tools and techniques of database analysis and design including the implementation of the design using common database management system models. Not open to students who have taken CS 474. Prerequisite for CIS majors: CIS 221 with a "C" or better; prerequisite or corequisite: COB 300. Prerequisites for CIS minors: CIS 221 with a "C" or better and junior or senior standing.

CIS 331. Intermediate Computer Programming.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Study of concepts and techniques used in structured programming for business applications including program specification, design, development, testing, implementation and documentation. Topics include report processing, file processing and updating, programming for batch and interactive environments, data validation, array processing and software engineering principles. Prerequisites or corequisites for CIS majors and minors: CIS 330.

CIS 354. Advanced Visual Basic Programming.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
Advanced course in Visual Basic programming. Emphasis will be placed on Object-Oriented programming, sequential and random data files and error trapping. Other topics covered will include data access objects, client server, printing in VB and Crystal Reports. Prerequisite: CIS 221 with a grade of "C" or better. Prerequisite or corequisite: CIS 330.

OM 360. Operations Management.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
An introduction to the operations function in business. Topics include facility design, job analysis and design, forecasting, production planning, quality management, inventory management, scheduling and project management. Prerequisites: CIS/COB 291 and junior standing.

CIS 361. Computer Information Systems Internship.
0 credits. Offered fall and spring.
To enable students to gain valuable work experience in a CIS-related field. Requires 300 hours of approved computer information systems work experience. All work sites must be pre-approved. Prerequisites: CIS major and COB 300.

CIS/BSAN 363. Business Process Management.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
This course covers the fundamental principles of successful process management for business applications and its role in identifying and communicating system requirements during a project life cycle. Students will learn tools to map process flows, analyze operational variables and evaluate the effects of random variation. Emphasis will be placed on modeling process dynamics with discrete-event simulation software and applying statistical-based methodologies to support the design, analysis and control of business processes to improve performance. Prerequisites: COB 291 or equivalent and junior or senior standing.

CIS/BSAN 364. Decision Support Systems.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
This course provides students with an understanding of computer-based information systems, which enhance the decision making capabilities of managers. Students will learn to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Office using Visual Basic for Applications and build decision support systems. Prerequisites: COB 291 or equivalent and junior or senior standing.

CIS 366. Web Development.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
This course is an introduction to the development of Web pages and websites. The three major topics covered are HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the principles of design for websites and the use of a programming language for web development. Prerequisites or corequisites for CIS majors: COB 300 and CIS 221 or equivalent with a grade of "C" or better. Prerequisites for declared CIS minors: CIS 221 or equivalent with a grade of "C" or better and junior or senior standing.

CIS 411. Computer Forensics for Business.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Study of the tools and techniques required to analyze the current and past contents of computer data storage devices. The course will cover the structure and formats of storage devices and the techniques used to manage storage devices and data. It will also include securing of the data and preparation for legal presentation of evidence. Analysis will include the audits of computer activity and audits of operating system logs. Prerequisites or corequisites: CIS 301 and junior or senior standing.

CIS 420. Computer-Based Networking.
3 credits. Offered spring.
An introduction to computer-based networks that incorporates data, voice and video traffic between computer systems and users. Topics include the theory, design and operation of local area networks, wide area networks and private branch exchange systems. Prerequisite: CIS 320.

CIS 424. Computer Security Management.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Instruction and discussion in the design, development and implementation of a computer security program including legal and ethical considerations. Prerequisites: CIS 221 and CIS 304.

CIS 428. Mobile Computing and Security.
3 credits. Offered fall.
The development of mobile software applications using current environments and frameworks is the primary objective of the class. Several different development and programming environments and platforms will be included as will the actual deployment of the application to a wireless device. An important aspect of the class will be the security implications of deploying mobile devices. Prerequisites: "C" or better grade in CIS 221 and CIS 331 as prerequisite or corequisite.

CIS 434. Information Technology Consulting.
3 credits. Offered fall.
This course investigates the tools used by and skills necessary for information technology consultants. The class will use a team-oriented project approach. Teams will be assigned professional consulting firms as manager/mentors and will work with their manager/mentor firm to complete projects that cover each phase of the consulting life cycle. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

CIS 454. Systems Analysis and Design.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
An introduction to the techniques of systems analysis and design. Emphasizes concept of system life cycle and importance of users in system design. Prerequisite: Declared CIS major or minor. Corequisite or prerequisite: CIS 330.

CIS 463. Business Intelligence.
3 credits. Offered fall.
This course provides a comprehensive discussion of advanced database techniques, data warehousing, online analytical processing (OLAP), data mining, data visualization, decision support systems (DSS), artificial intelligence (AI) methods and other business intelligence (BI) topics. Students gain practical experience using contemporary BI tools and technologies, and apply sound design principles for creating intelligent solutions to realistic business problems. Prerequisite: Grade of "C" or better in CIS 330.

CIS 464. Information Systems Project Management.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Students will develop knowledge and expertise applying techniques and tools used by systems analysts and project managers to plan and manage information systems implementations. Prerequisites or corequisites for CIS majors: COB 300 and CIS 221 or equivalent with a grade of "C" or better. Prerequisite for declared CIS minors: CIS 221 or equivalent with a grade of "C" or better and junior standing.

CIS 466. Advanced Web Development.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
This course provides students with understanding and practical experience in server-side programming issues for Web-enabled database and e-commerce application development. Principal topics include receiving and responding to requests from browsers, connecting to database servers via middleware software, and scripting business rules and application logic on a Web server. E-commerce business issues, security implementations and object-oriented design are also covered. Prerequisites: CIS 366 and CIS 330 or permission of the instructor.

CIS 484. Information Systems Development and Implementation.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Comprehensive development and implementation of enterprise-level systems using object-oriented methodologies, database driven architectures, systems analysis and design procedures, and project management skills. Topics covered will include advanced programming techniques, database processing, GUI design, object communication and a comprehensive group capstone project. Prerequisites: CIS 331 with a grade of "C" or better and CIS 330 with a grade of "C" or better. Corequisite: CIS 454.

CIS/BSAN 490. Special Studies in Computer Information Systems or Business Analytics.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
An advanced course in information and/or business analytics designed to give qualified students an opportunity to complete independent study under faculty supervision. Prerequisites: Senior standing, recommendation of the instructor and written approval of the department head prior to registration.

CIS 498. Special Topics in Computer Information Systems.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
An advanced course designed to allow exploration of current topics in computer information systems. Course content will vary. See adviser for current content. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

CIS 499. Honors.
6 credits. Offered as needed.
Year course. See catalog section "Graduation with Honors."

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Computer Science

Department of Computer Science

CS 110. Introduction to Computer Professionalism and Ethics.
1 credit. Not currently offered.
Seminar for first year students and transfer students focusing on professional and ethical issues in computer science. Topics include computer science degree requirements, the computer science profession, ethics of computing professionals, protection of software, Internet security and privacy issues, and current issues in computer science.

CS 139. Algorithm Development (3, 2).
4 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Students learn fundamental problem-solving techniques using computer software tools that support algorithm development and procedural abstraction to analyze a domain and create reusable software applications.

CS/MATH 227-228. Discrete Structures I-II.
3 credits each semester. CS/MATH 227 offered fall and spring. CS/MATH 228 offered fall.
An introduction to discrete mathematical structures including functions, relations, sets, logic, matrices, elementary number theory, proof techniques, basics of counting, graphic theory, discrete probability, digital logic, finite state machines, integer and floating point representations. Prerequisite for CS/MATH 228: CS/MATH 227.

CS 239. Advanced Computer Programming (3, 2).
4 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Students use various advanced problem-solving strategies to develop algorithms using classes and objects. Students also learn how to implement and use elementary data structures, including character strings, records, files, stacks and queues. Prerequisite: CS 139 or equivalent with a grade of "C" or better.

CS 240. Algorithms and Data Structures.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Students learn to implement and analyze elementary data structures and the basic complexity classes of algorithms that use strategies such as greedy algorithms, divide-and-conquer algorithms and backtracking algorithms. This analysis is especially applied to problems in searching, sorting and parsing. Prerequisites: CS/MATH 227 and a grade of "C" or better in CS 239.

CS 252. Discrete Structures.
3 credits. Not currently Offered .
Introduction to the mathematical structures used in computer science. Topics include logic and set theory, algebraic structures, automata theory and computability. Prerequisite: CS 139.

CS 274. Introduction to Databases.
3 credits. Not currently offered.
Students learn how to design and implement a normalized relational database. Emphasis is on the practical construction of an interactive database using graphical user interfaces and report generation.

CS 280. Projects in Computer Science.
1-3 credits. Offered as demand warrants.
Projects or topics in computer science which are of interest to the lower division student. May be repeated for credit when course content changes. Topics may vary. Prerequisite: Students should consult the instructor prior to enrolling for the course.

CS/CIS 320. Computing and Telecommunications Networks.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
This course focuses on the underlying principles of telecommunications and how these principles are deployed to provide efficient and secure networks for providing voice, data and video services. Emphasis is placed on understanding basic routing, switching and data aggregation techniques, information security strategies, and understanding how basic information systems applications utilize telecommunications services. Prerequisite: Open to CIS majors and minors with corequisite of
CIS 304
. Open to ISAT majors with prerequisite of ISAT 252. Open to CS majors with prerequisite of CS 139.

CS 340. Assembly Language Programming.
3 credits. Offered as demand warrants.
Principles of assembly language programming. Assembly language contrasted with machine language. Assembly directives, conditional assembly and macros. Design of a two-pass assembler. The material in this course is useful for those interested in machine design, operating systems, embedded computer systems and microcontrollers, and other areas which require low-level knowledge of computer operation. Prerequisite: CS 139.

CS/ISAT 344. Intelligent Systems.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
In-depth introduction to current and future intelligent systems, including expert systems, neural networks, hybrid intelligent systems, and other intelligent system technologies and their development, uses and limitations. Prerequisite: CS 239 or ISAT 340.

CS/ISAT 345. Software Engineering.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Study of means for the development and maintenance of high quality software products delivered on time and within budget. Topics include requirements analysis and specification, software design, implementation, testing, maintenance, project management, ethics and the responsibilities of software engineering professionals. Prerequisites: CS 139 or ISAT 340 with sophomore standing in the ISAT major.

CS 347. Web-Based Information Systems.
3 credits. Offered fall.
This course covers the design and development of applications intended for deployment over the World Wide Web. Students will examine Web protocols, the architecture of Web-based applications, the languages and facilities with which they are developed, and related issues such as security and reliability. Students will also work in teams using a representative suite of development tools and languages to design and construct a simple client/server application that includes a GUI and a database interface. Prerequisites: CS 239 with a grade of "C" or better and CS 345.

CS 349. Developing Interactive Multimedia.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Students learn the concepts of multimedia, the issues in designing multimedia to interact effectively with users, the performance and speed issues in designing multimedia, and how to implement interactive multimedia applications. Prerequisite: CS 240.

CS 350. Computer Organization.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Students learn how a computer works through principles of hierarchical computer organization, hardware (including registers, busses and arithmetic logic units) machine instruction sets, addressing techniques, input/output processing, and interrupt handling. Students are introduced to the Unix operating system. As part of this course, students will be provided with a version of Unix to install on a personal computer. Prerequisites: CS/MATH 227 and a grade of "C" or better in CS 239.

CS 402. Introduction to Information System Security.
3 credits. Offered summer.
This course provides an introduction to the design and management of operating systems and networks, focusing on those aspects that affect information security. It provides students with the skill or ability to design, execute and evaluate information system security procedures and practices. This course does not satisfy any requirements for majors or minors in computer science. Prerequisite: CS 139 or equivalent.

CS 403 Information Systems Security Management.
1 credit.
This course covers the basic material needed to maintain an information system. Topics covered include: granting final approval to operate, accreditation of the system and verifying compliance with stated policies and procedures. This course does not satisfy any requirements for majors or minors in Computer Science. Prerequisite: CS 402 or CS 457.

CS 404. Information System Security Administration.
1 credit.
This course prepares a student to ensure information systems and networks are used securely; to identify and report security incidents; to maintain configuration control of systems and software; and to identify anomalies or integrity loopholes. This course does not satisfy and requirements for majors or minors in Computer Science. Prerequisite: CS 402 or CS 457.

CS 405. Information System Security Operations.
1 credit. Offered summer.
This course covers the basic material needed by information system security officers to protect their information systems. Topics covered include: certification, accreditation, site security policy, security policy enforcement and security reporting. This course does not satisfy any requirements for majors or minors in computer science. Prerequisite: CS 402 or CS 457.

CS 406. Assessment of Secure Information Systems.
1 credit. Offered summer.
This course considers the assessment of the technical and non-technical security features of an information system in an operational configuration. Upon completion of the course, students should be able to identify the assurance levels achieved in meeting all applicable security policies, standards and requirements. This course does not satisfy any requirements for majors or minors in computer science. Prerequisite: CS 402 or CS 457.

CS 430. Programming Languages.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Several actual programming languages are studied in terms of the fundamental principles of computer programming language design, including object-oriented programming, functional programming, concurrent programming and logic programming. Prerequisites: CS 240 and CS 350.

CS 444. Artificial Intelligence.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Students will study the history, premises, goals, social impact and philosophical implications of artificial intelligence. Students will study heuristic algorithms for large state spaces and learn to develop recursive and non-deterministic algorithms. Prerequisite: CS 240.

CS 446. Software Analysis and Design.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Contemporary software analysis and design methods, tools, notations, techniques, processes, principles and practices. Students solve analysis and design problems alone or in teams and present their work to their peers and the instructor. Prerequisites: CS 240 and CS 345.

CS/ISAT 447. Interaction Design.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Study of and practice with processes, principles, tools, models and techniques for designing interactions between humans and digital products and systems. Topics include physiological and psychological factors affecting interaction design, interaction design processes, interaction models, styles, and paradigms, design notations and representations, prototyping, and interaction design evaluation. Prerequisite: Junior standing.

CS/MATH 448-449. Numerical Mathematics and Computer Applications.
3 credits each semester.
Numerical solutions and error analysis of typical problems such as finding zeros of nonlinear functions, solving systems of linear and nonlinear equations, interpolation, approximation, integration, solving ordinary differential equations, optimization, and Monte Carlo methods. Prerequisites for CS/MATH 448: MATH 237, MATH 300 and MATH 248. Prerequisites for CS/MATH 449: CS/MATH 448 and MATH 336.

CS 450. Operating Systems.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Systems programming and operating systems Network environments, windowing environments, user interfaces. Memory management, process management, file system management and device management. Prerequisite: CS 350.

CS/MATH 452. Design and Analysis of Algorithms.
3 credits. Offered spring.
An introduction to the analysis, design and theory of algorithms. Algorithms studied will be selected from searching, sorting and graph theory. Included are elements of counting, recurrence relations, direct and indirect proofs, recursion, complexity classes, language theory, decidability and undecidability. Prerequisites: CS/MATH 228 AND CS 240.

CS 454. Internship in Computer Science.
1-3 credits. Offered summer.
An advanced course to give supervised practical experience in a professional computing environment. May be taken multiple times for credit, but no more than three credits may be used in the computer science program graduation requirements. Prerequisites: Junior standing, major in computer science and permission of the instructor.

CS 457. Information Security.
3 credits. Offered fall.
This course covers the basic issues of information system security. The roles of planning, management, policies, procedures and personnel in protecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information are described. Specific threats (malicious code, network attacks and hostile content) and widely used countermeasures (access control, mechanisms, firewalls, intrusion detection systems) are also discussed. Prerequisite: CS 450.

CS 458. Cyber Defense.
3 credits. Offered spring.
A hands-on, lab-based learning experience in which the students engage in a series of mini projects to perform security assessment, penetration testing and hardening of networked systems. Students also participate in a cyber defense exercise. Prerequisites: CS 457 and CS 460.

CS/ISAT 460. TCP/IP Networks.
3 credits. Offered fall.
An overview of Local Network hardware, LAN topology and design, and LAN protocols. Includes installation and management of network operating systems and TCP/IP services (address management, name management, file and print sharing, account management). Prerequisite: CS 350 or CS/CIS 320 or equivalent.

CS/ISAT 461. Internetworking.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Wide Area Network (WAN) and Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) design. Audio, voice, data and TV transmission over ATM/B-ISDN networks. The SONET signal hierarchy and Q3 standard interface model. Network security. Performance analysis of a given network. Prerequisite: CS/ISAT 460.

CS/ISAT 462. Network Applications Development.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Design and implementation of network-based applications using languages and architectures such as sockets, JAVA, TL1 and CORBA. Concepts in distributed processing, including synchronization of interprocess communication and management of replicated data. Analysis of performance issues related to distributed applications. Prerequisites: CS/ISAT 460 and either CS 239 or CIS 344.

CS/ISAT 463. Network Analysis and Design.
3 credits. Offered spring.
In-depth introduction to the techniques and tools used to design and analyze computer and telecommunications networks. Overview of issues related to network performance, including the impact on cost, reliability and security. Prerequisites: CS/ISAT 460 and either CS 239 or ISAT 340.

CS/ISAT 464. Issues in the Telecommunications Business.
3 credits. Offered fall.
Addresses complex business concepts and issues in the telecommunications industry. Explores the interrelation of the economics of the telecommunications industry with ensuing social, ethical and security issues. Discusses topics in product and service creation, marketing, customer service and billing, and electronic commerce. Prerequisites: CIS 320, SMAD 356, and ISAT 340 or equivalent.

CS 474. Database Design and Application.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Students study database design and management with emphasis placed on data definition languages, data manipulation languages, query languages and management of the database environment. Prerequisite: CS 239 and CS 345 or equivalent.

CS 475. Distributed Database Management.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Students learn the concepts of client-server architectures and other aspects that arise in the design of distributed database systems. Prerequisite: CS 474.

CS 476. Database Administration.
3 credits. Offered spring.
Students learn to administer a database by manipulating physical and logical components of a database management system. Topics include creation of an instance, managing of tables, indexes, privileges, profiles and roles. Prerequisite: CS 474.

CS 480. Selected Topics in Computer Science.
1-3 credits. Offered as demand warrants.
Topics in computer science which are of interest but not otherwise covered in the regular computer science offerings of the department. Offered only with the approval of the department head; may be repeated for credit when course content changes. Prerequisite: CS 239. Topics selected may dictate further prerequisites; students should consult the instructor prior to enrolling for course.

CS 482. Selected Topics in Information Security.
1-3 credits. Offered spring.
Topics in information security. Offered only with the approval of the department head; may be repeated for credit when course content changes. Prerequisite: CS 240 and CS 350. Topics selected may dictate further prerequisites; students should consult the instructor prior to enrolling for the course.

CS 488. Computer Graphics Applications.
3 credits. Offered as demand warrants.
This course develops a computer graphics application package based on standard graphics functions as well as attributes of a graphical user interface. It includes experience in applying interactive computer graphics techniques to industrial problems. Prerequisites: CS 240 and CS 350.

CS 497. Independent Study.
1-3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
An advanced course to give independent study experience under faculty supervision. May be taken multiple times for credit, but no more than three credits may be used in the computer science program graduation requirements. Prerequisites: Junior standing, major in computer science and permission of the program coordinator.

CS 499. Honors.
6 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Year course. See catalog section "Graduation with Honors."

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Continuing Education

Outreach and Engagement

CE 490. Special Studies in Continuing Education.
1-3 credits.
This course is designed to allow exploration of current topics of interest including various trends and issues in a given field of study.

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Criminal Justice

Department of Justice Studies

CRJU 215. Introduction to Criminal Justice.
3 credits.
An introduction to the development of the American criminal justice system from early English beginnings to the present in its three dimensions: police, courts and corrections.

CRJU 225. Ethics in Criminal Justice.
3 credits. Offered once a year.
This class offers an overview of ethical issues in the various branches of the criminal justice system and reviews approaches to establishing and using ethical practices.

CRJU 301. Special Topics in Criminal Justice.
3 credits.
This course provides an examination of topics that are of current interest in the field of criminal justice. The class may be repeated for credit when course content changes.

CRJU 321. Criminalistics.
3 credits. Offered once a year.
This course introduces student to crime scene investigation and the major disciplines of modern forensic science. Topics include an examination of the historical background of forensic science in the criminal justice system, an assessment of general principles of the current practice of forensic science, examination of the role of expert testimony and likely interaction(s) of the forensic scientist with other individuals and components of the criminal justice system. Prerequisite: CRJU 215.

CRJU/SOCI 325. Criminology.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Study of the extent, causes and possible deterrents to crime including murder, assault, white-collar offenses and organized crime with attention to the role of the victim and policy implications.

CRJU 328. Criminal Procedure.
3 credits.
Study of the criminal justice process from arrest through appeal with emphasis upon the rights of the accused including due process, the right to counsel, search and seizure, and the privilege against self-incrimination. Prerequisite: CRJU 215.

CRJU 329. Criminal Investigation and Evidence.
3 credits.
Characteristics, legal aspects, organizational objectives, theories and systematic procedure of criminal investigation. Includes a survey of the investigative function, interviewing witnesses, interrogation, physical evidence, the investigation of common serious offenses and the principles of evidence, including the legal rules controlling the presentation of evidence in court.

CRJU 335. Law Enforcement.
3 credits. Offered once a year.
This course provides students with an overview of the practice of law enforcement, the legal and social issues associated with this work in the United States. Prerequisite: CRJU 215.

CRJU 337. Courts and the Judiciary.
3 credits. Offered once a year.
This class offers students an in depth introduction to the workings of the Court system in the United States. Prerequisite: CRJU 215

CRJU 340. Administration of Justice.
3 credits. Offered once a year.
This course is designed to identify unique challenges to administrators of criminal justice organizations. The structures, functions, and processes in the administration of criminal justice organizations is examined. Topics of interest include a variety of public management theories, the role of leadership, and communication as it relates to criminal justice organization. Prerequisites: CRJU 215.

CRJU 401. Internship in Criminal Justice.
4 credits. Offered each semester as requested.
This course allows students to receive academic credit for work experienced in an agency or organization related to the criminal justice minor. Students should consult the director of the criminal justice minor for assistance in arranging approved internships.

CRJU 496. Internship in Criminal Justice.
4 credits. Offered each semester as requested.
Provides students with an opportunity for experiential learning in an agency setting. Research paper required. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

 

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Cross Disciplinary Studies

Office of Cross Disciplinary Studies

CDS 301. Special Topics.
1-3 credits.
This course allows instructors working through recognized university centers or institutes to offer an examination of current topics that are cross disciplinary in nature and not covered elsewhere in the curriculum. The course may be repeated for credit when course content changes.

CDS 401. Internship.
1-3 credits.
This course allows students to receive academic credit for work experienced in a recognized JMU center or institute. Internships must be approved in advance by the center director and follow the guidelines established by the participating center or institute. Internship is granted at the discretion of the center director. Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing and permission of the director.

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