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Reading Education

College of Education

READ 240. Children's Literature.
3 credits.
The study of a variety of children's literature and the practices, principles and procedures for selecting and evaluating works for children, giving consideration to their motivational and developmental effects. Prerequisite: Completion of Cluster One.

READ 254. Literature for Adolescents.
3 credits.
A study of literature which has been written for or appeals to young adults and adolescents, including practices, principles and procedures for evaluating and making literary materials appealing to adolescents. Prerequisite: Completion of Cluster One.

READ 312. Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum in the Middle Grades.
3 credits.
An introduction for preservice teachers to the foundations of reading and writing development and the elements of balanced literacy instruction in the middle grades. Through reading, writing and field applications across content areas, preservice teachers explore literacy engagement, diversity and special needs. Corequisites: EDUC 310, EDUC 311 and practicum.

READ 366. Early Literacy Development and Acquisition.
3 credits.
This course provides preservice teachers an understanding of the foundations of early literacy development and instructional strategies and assessment techniques that support the acquisition of literacy.

READ 414. Reading and Writing in the Content Areas.
1 credit.
Study of how to use print and media resources to support the acquisition of knowledge and the development of reading and writing skills in all content areas. This course may not be used for credit in minor programs in early and middle education.

READ 420. Content Area Literacy, K-12.
2 credits.
This course is designed for preservice teachers and will provide an introduction to the foundations of reading and balanced literacy instruction for students in kindergarten through grade 12. Through reading and writing across content areas, preservice teachers will explore literacy engagement, diversity and special needs.

READ 430. Development, Assessment and Instruction of Literacy, K-12.
3 credits.
This course is designed to provide preservice teachers with a foundation of literacy development. Instructional strategies and assessment techniques, which support the acquisition and development of literacy in diverse classrooms across the curriculum in grades K-12. Prerequisite: CSD 300. Corequisite: EXED 410.

READ 436. Literacy Learning in the Elementary Grades.
3 credits.
This course will provide preservice teachers with an understanding developmentally appropriate instructional strategies and assessment techniques to help all students in elementary grades become literate using reading, writing, listening and speaking in strategic and authentic ways. Prerequisite: Grade of "C" or better in READ 366.

READ 440. Literacy-Based Learning in Secondary Education.
3 credits.
This course will provide preservice teachers in secondary education with an understanding of how to create productive contexts for literacy-based learning. Particular areas of emphasis include selecting reading materials, understanding literacy development, and facilitating individual student engagement.

READ 472. Literacy Assessment and Instruction in the Content Areas for the Middle Grades.
3 credits.
The course will introduce preservice teachers to the relationship between literacy assessment practices and instructional design for teaching reading and writing in content area classrooms. Using case study methodology, preservice teachers will explore individual students' literacy strengths, areas that need development and specific instructional strategies. Prerequisite: READ 312. Corequisites: MSSE 370, MSSE 371 and Practicum.

READ 490. Special Studies in Reading Education.
1-3 credits.
Designed to give capable students, under faculty guidance, an opportunity to engage in the independent study of educational problems. Prerequisite: Plan for the study must be approved by the faculty adviser and the coordinator of the program in which the student is enrolled.

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Religion

Department of Philosophy and Religion

GREL 101. Religions of the World.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
An investigation of the world's major religions which will give attention to their origin, history, mythology and doctrines.

REL/HEBR 131-132. Elementary Biblical Hebrew.
4 credits each semester.
An introductory course for students who intend to acquire the ability to read the Massoretic text of the Bible. Systematic study of the fundamentals of grammar with emphasis on reading, pronunciation and translation.

REL 200. Exploring Religion.
3 credits.
An examination of the various components in the study of religion including myths, rituals, mystical experiences, theologies, ethics and current issues. Examples will be taken from the sacred texts, rituals and the lives of religious personalities in traditions around the world.

REL 201. Introduction to Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.
3 credits. Offered fall.
A study of selected texts from the books of Genesis-Malachi that will examine their literary, historical and theological dimensions from the perspective of their ancient Israelite and Judahite contexts.

REL 202. Jesus and the Beginnings of Christianity.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
This course discusses the literature of the New Testament in light of the historical, social and religious conditions from which it emerged. Particular attention is given to historical issues related to Jesus and the origins of Christianity.

REL/PHIL 218. Philosophy of Religion.
3 credits.
An intensive examination of religion from the standpoint of philosophical thinking with particular emphasis on the way philosophers view such problems as the existence of God, evil, immortality, religious language, etc.

REL/HEBR 231-232. Intermediate Biblical Hebrew.
3 credits each semester.
An intensive reading course. Selections from the Massoretic text of the Bible. An introduction to the critical apparatus used within the Massoretic text as well as the variant reading apparatus printed in the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Prerequisite: One year of college biblical Hebrew or equivalent.

REL 240. Jesus and the Moral Life.
3 credits.
An introductory course that focuses on the ways in which the moral teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, explored from both historical and multi-cultural perspectives, informed and continues to inform personal ideals and moral visions of society.

REL 270. Religious Ethics.
3 credits.
An investigation of the historical development of religious values and moral concepts in the Western religious traditions of Judaism, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.

REL 280. Religion and Science.
3 credits.
This course will provide a historical survey of the relationship between religion and the sciences; offer overviews of scientific and theological theory; examine the development of theory formation; focus on issues in astronomy, physics and biology; explore the ethical implications of scientific and religious theories; and trace developments.

REL 300. Selected Topics in Religion.
3 credits.
Selected topics in religion are studied in depth. See e-campus for current topic. Course may be repeated for credit when content changes.

REL 305. Islamic Religious Traditions.
3 credits.
This course introduces the Islamic religious tradition from its inception to the present. Topics covered include the message and style of the Qur'an, the life and experience of Muhammad, the major beliefs and practices of Islam, and the theological, philosophical and mystical movements in the Islamic empire. Attention is also given to modern Islamic movements and their relation to the modern world inside and outside the Middle East.

REL 310. Hindu Traditions.
3 credits.
This course examines the notions of world, community and self as experienced and interpreted by Hindus; the basic assumptions underlying their world view; how these assumptions interrelate with the various dimensions of Hindu physical, psychological and cultural experience; how they are expressed in myth, ritual and social structures; and the tensions we find between the ideal and the real.

REL 312. Religions of East Asia.
3 credits.
An introduction to the religions of China and Japan, including Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Shinto, folk religions and the "New Religions" of Japan. Attention to the role of religion in the family and the state, classic texts, the importance of nature and expressions of spirituality in the fine arts.

REL 313. Hindu Ethics.
3 credits.
This course is an introduction to Hindu modes of moral reasoning. It gives special attention to the concept of moral order and its relationship to the pursuit of pleasure and of wealth, on the one hand, and the quest for liberation, on the other hand. Attention is paid to common moral obligations as well as to specified, and sometimes gendered, vocational duties incumbent upon Hindus.

REL 314. Gandhi, Nonviolence and Global Transformation.
3 credits.
Gandhi is unique as a social theorist, a philosopher and an activist. He challenged the dominant world structure of his time and struggled with some of the most significant issues of our time: violence, racism, oppression of women, role of religion, nature of capitalism and conflict between ethnic and religious communities. This course examines his theory and praxis on these and other issues.

REL 315. Women and Religion.
3 credits.
Study of women and world religions, historically and today, emphasizing Buddhism, religions of China and Japan, Judaism and Christianity. The variety of women's religious roles and practices are studied in a comparative context. Feminist scholarship's proposals for revising our understanding of religious history and reforming religious traditions.

REL 316. Topics in Hinduism.
3 credits.
Study of selected topics in Hinduism. May be repeated for credit when course content changes.

REL 317. Exploring Gandhian Philosophy of Nonviolence.
3 or 6 credits. Offered alternate summers.
The JMU in India Summer program is a travel-study course. The program provides an interdisciplinary study to the history and contemporary application of the Gandhian philosophy of nonviolence through course work, field studies and direct experience.

REL 318. Exploring Contemporary India.
3 or 6 credits. Offered alternate summers.
The JMU in India Summer program is a travel-study course. The program provides an interdisciplinary introduction to contemporary India from the point of view of religion, mythology, literature, music, art and architecture through course work, field studies and direct experience.

REL 320. Judaism.
3 credits.
An examination of the beliefs, practices and historical development of the various forms of Judaism represented in America today: Orthodox, Reform, Conservative and Reconstructionist.

REL/SOCI 322. Sociology of Religion.
3 credits.
A sociological analysis of religion; how it influences and is influenced by social existence. See cross listing in Department of Sociology and Anthropology.

REL 325. Catholicism in the Modern World.
3 credits.
Study of the variety of responses by contemporary Catholic theologians and philosophers to key elements in Christian doctrine and practice. Topics include Vatican II; scripture, tradition and modern scholarship; Jesus and Christology; contemporary Catholic spirituality; moral issues in the church; and ecumenism.

REL 330. African and African-American Religion.
3 credits.
An examination of the character and nature of religious traditions and liturgical practices of African and African-American communities through history.

REL 332. Born Again Religion.
3 credits.
Evangelical Protestantism has played a vital role in shaping American religious history. The religious and social allegiances of evangelicalism are quite diverse, however. Evangelicals also maintain a paradoxical relationship with American society, functioning both as powerful insiders and vocal outsiders. This course is designed to introduce students to the history of evangelicalism, its religious patterns and its negotiations with contemporary American culture.

REL 334. New Religious Movements.
3 credits.
America has proven to be fertile soil for the development of new religious traditions. It has encouraged religious pluralism, and has allowed hundreds of new communities to establish themselves as important elements of society. This course will consider some of the representative new religions in America by examining their histories, beliefs, and practices.

REL 336. African American Religion.
3 credits.
The purpose of this course is to familiarize the student with the broad contours of the African American religious experience, and its history, practices, and communities by examining the intersection of race and religion in America. Through the close reading of primary texts and increased familiarity with significant scholarly literature, students will gain a basic understanding of the fundamental categories in African American religion.

REL 342. The Historical Jesus and the Roman Imperial World.
3 credits.
A study of the historical Jesus and the Jesus-movement as a response to Roman power, domination and violence. Includes discussion of historiographical problems raised in past and present scholarly "quests" for the historical Jesus.

REL 344. Christianity in the Roman Empire.
3 credits.
This course examines the rise of Christianity in the social and religious context of the pagan Roman Empire. It focuses on crucial struggles and conflicts in the volatile period from Jesus to the fourth century A.D.

REL 346. Religions in Greece and Rome.
3 credits.
This course explores the religious traditions of ancient Greece and Rome. Through study of the diverse gods and goddesses and the divine honors paid to them, the course covers central aspects of Greco-Roman culture and society. Attention is also given to new religious traditions, in particular the Mystery religions, that gained prominence in the world of the Roman Empire.

REL 348. Christianity in Global Context.
3 credits.
Christianity plays a vital role in many societies around the world. Though often treated as a mostly western or European religion, it was in fact a global religion first and foremost. This course examines Christianity from that global perspective. What does Christianity look like around the world? How have indigenous cultures fashioned their own versions of Christianity in the modern world? Is there unity in the diversity of these global Christianities?

REL 350. Islamic Law and Society.
3 credits.
This course aims to introduce students to the study of Islamic law, the all-embracing sacred law of Islam. This course we will consider various facets of the historical, doctrinal, institutional, and social complexity of Islamic law in the classical and modern periods. Topics to be discussed include medieval Islamic legal theory, gender and sexuality, the just war, and the issue of Islamic law and universal human rights, particularly as they pertain to women.

REL 360. History of Western Religious Thought.
3 credits.
A survey of the development of Western religious thought from the classical period through the modern period. The primary emphasis will be on the person, ideas, beliefs and critical turning points in the development of Christianity and Judaism with some reference to Islam and to contemporary religious developments.

REL/HIST 362. Introduction to U.S. Religious History.
3 credits.
The course introduces the religious history of the colonies and the United States, from native traditions through the 20th century. We examine the historical/social impact of groups ranging from Roman Catholic migrants to evangelical Protestants and Scientologists. Special attention is paid to the extraordinary and persistent levels of religious diversity and adherence throughout U.S. history.

REL/IA 363. Apocalypticism, Religious Terrorism and Peace.
3 credits.
This course traces apocalypticism from its ancient Jewish and Christian roots to its contemporary manifestations in religious groups around the world. Since apocalypticism is a worldview that cuts across religious traditions, the course covers a variety of religious groups. The last half of the course focuses on the complex relationships between apocalyptic thinking and religious terrorism and entails an independent research project.

REL 370. Mysticism.
3 credits.
An examination of the nature of mysticism and its forms of practice in selected religious communities through the world.

REL/PHIL 375. The 19th Century: Age of Ideology.
3 credits.
A study of selected 19th-century philosophers and theologians with special attention to rationalism, romanticism and idealism. Views of Hegel, Schleiermacher, Ritschl, Marx and others are considered.

REL/PHIL 377. Hermeneutics. 3 credits.
Offered every two years.
This course will examine the main features of hermeneutics with particular emphasis on its contemporary perspectives. Discussion will focus on such themes as human understanding and human finitude, the nature of history and tradition, linguisticality and textuality of experience. Readings may address Gadamer, Ricoeur, Schleiermacher, and Dilthey. Prerequisite: GPHIL 101 or permission of the instructor.

REL 380. Contemporary Theologies.
3 credits.
A survey of one or more of the following contemporary theological movements: continental, North American, African and South American, including Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant approaches, and covering themes such as the conflict between history and faith, Christology, fundamentalism and liberalism, and the emergence of liberation, feminist, black, neo-conservative, secular, pluralist and ecological theologies.

REL/PHIL 385. Buddhist Thought.
3 credits.
Study of major issues and thinkers in the Buddhist tradition from ancient times to the present. May be repeated for credit when course content changes.

REL/PHIL 386. Topics in Buddhist Studies.
3 credits. Offered every two years
Study of major issues and thinkers in the Buddhist tradition from ancient times to the present. May be repeated for credit when course content changes. Prerequisite: PHIL 385 or REL 385.

REL 420. Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion.
3 credits.
Philosophy of religion questions examined from the perspectives of multiple religious world views using a philosophical approach. Readings draw upon multiple conceptions of the divine; faith, knowledge and religious experience; justice and karma; exclusivity and religious pluralism. Does not repeat REL/PHIL 218. Prerequisites: GREL 101 and junior standing or permission of instructor.

REL 450. Religion and Society.
3 credits.
A survey and/or selection of major Western approaches to issues of religion and society, including but not limited to, traditional understanding of church and state issues. Significant figures, texts and methodologies will be critically examined. Fulfills the College of Arts and Letters writing-intensive requirement for the major. Prerequisite: One of the following: REL 240, REL 270, REL 360, REL 380 or permission of instructor.

REL 460. Topics in Ancient Jewish and Early Christian Literature.
3 credits.
An in-depth examination, using critical academic methods, of the historical, literary and cultural dimensions of selected texts from the literatures of Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Fulfills the College of Arts and Letters writing-intensive requirement for the major. Prerequisite: REL 201, REL 202 or permission of the instructor.

REL 475. Inter-Religious Dialogue.
3 credits.
Dialogue is, today, the most important response of the world's religions to the diversity of world religions. It is a vehicle for mutual understanding, mutual challenge and joint response to contemporary problems. Students will study the theory and practice of dialog and then engage in dialog. Fulfills the College of Arts and Letters writing-intensive requirement for the major. Prerequisite: Familiarity with two world religions or permission of the instructor.

REL 490. Special Studies in Religion.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Designed to give capable students an opportunity to complete independent study in religion under faculty supervision. Prerequisite: Permission of the department head.

REL 495. Religion Internship.
3 credits. Offered as needed.
Gives the structured opportunity to gain practical knowledge and experience while serving the community. Prerequisite: Philosophy and Religion Major or Minor (Religion Concentration), junior or senior standing.

REL 499. Honors.
6 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Year course.

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Russian

Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures and Cultures

RUS 101. Elementary Russian I (4, 1).
4 credits. Offered fall.
The fundamentals of Russian through listening, speaking, reading and writing. Practice in pronunciation and development of comprehension. Requires one hour's work a week in the language laboratory. If student has had two or more years of the language in high school he/she will not receive credit for the course.

RUS 102. Elementary Russian II (4, 1).
4 credits. Offered spring .
The fundamentals of Russian through listening, speaking, reading and writing. Practice in pronunciation and development of comprehension. Requires one hour's work a week in the language laboratory. If student has had two or more years of the language in high school he/she will not receive credit for the course. Prerequisite: RUS 101.

RUS 111. Intensive Russian I (6, 1).
6 credits each semester. Offered May and June.
The fundamentals of Russian through listening, speaking, reading and writing. The four-week course is the equivalent of RUS 101-102.

RUS 212. Intensive Russian II (6, 1).
6 credits each semester. Offered May and June.
The fundamentals of Russian through listening, speaking, reading and writing. The four-week course is the equivalent of RUS 231-232. Prerequisite: RUS 102 or RUS 111 or permission of instructor.

RUS 231. Intermediate Russian I.
3 credits. Offered fall.
A thorough review of grammar, vocabulary building, conversation, composition and reading. Prerequisite: RUS 102 or permission of instructor.

RUS 232. Intermediate Russian II.
3 credits. Offered spring.
A thorough review of grammar, vocabulary building, conversation, composition and reading. Prerequisite: RUS 231 or permission of instructor.

RUS 265-266. Russian Literature in Translation.
3 credits each semester. Offered fall and spring.
First semester: Russian literature to 1880; second semester: 1880 to the present. All lectures and readings are in English.

RUS 300. Russian Grammar and Communication.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Intensive training in grammatical structures and their application to oral and written communication. Instruction is in Russian. Fulfills the College of Arts and Letters writing-intensive requirement. Prerequisite: RUS 232 or equivalent.

RUS 308. Introduction to Russian Civilization.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
A study of Russian life and culture and the outstanding contributions of Russian-speaking peoples. Instruction is in Russian. Prerequisite: RUS 300.

RUS 320. Russian Oral and Written Communication.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Intensive training in the use of modern, everyday Russian with emphasis on conversation and composition. Readings in Russian will provide a context for discussion and writing. Prerequisite: RUS 300.

RUS 400. Advanced Conversation.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Discussions deal with topics of current interest. Instruction is in Russian. Prerequisite: RUS 300 or equivalent.

RUS 405. Russian Literature of the 19th Century.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
Readings and analyses of poetry, prose and drama by such writers as Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky and Chekhov. Instruction is in Russian. Prerequisite: Three years of college Russian or equivalent.

RUS 406. Russian Literature of the 20th Century.
3 credits. Offered fall or spring.
A study of the works of major Russian writers of the 20th century. Instruction is in Russian. Prerequisite: Three years of college Russian or equivalent.

RUS/ENG 438. Studies in Russian Literature.
3 credits. Offered fall and spring.
A study of selected works of Russian literature. Instruction is in English. May be repeated for credit when course content changes.

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