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Mission Statement
The School of Music is strongly committed to the highest level of musical training. The school offers a comprehensive undergraduate program and a graduate program that strive for the highest quality in music performance and academic study. The instruction prepares students for careers in music performance, music education, composition, music theatre and music industry. By incorporating general education studies, the undergraduate program enables students to relate music to historical, sociological and economic developments.

Additionally, the School of Music seeks to provide the JMU and Shenandoah Valley communities with a variety of cultural benefits through music performances. These performances include faculty and student recitals, concerts by the numerous musical ensembles within the school, and performances, clinics and workshops by visiting artists.

The School of Music is an accredited institutional member of the National Association of Schools of Music.

  Goals
To fulfill the above mission, the School of Music seeks to:
  • select undergraduate and graduate majors and minors who have demonstrated a commitment to developing their musical skills and talents.
  • motivate music enthusiasts to explore musical concepts by exposing them to and including them in music performance, composition and education.
  • maintain a sense of community that encourages intellectual curiosity, creative endeavor, cultural diversity and respect for various perspectives.
  • demand excellence from faculty members as educators, researchers, performers, clinicians and mentors so that they develop students into motivated, competent professionals and outstanding world citizens.
  • provide music majors and non-music majors with knowledge of music and develop appropriately their skill levels and musicianship.
  • offer curricula that prepare students to be professionals in music performance, composition, education or industry.
  • broaden studentsí understanding of music through innovative teaching, creative experiences and scholarly research.
  • provide a wide variety of cultural events for the JMU and Shenandoah Valley communities.
  • expose students to current technology used in the music field, such as computers, music instruction software, electronic devices and technologically advanced audio and visual equipment.
Back to top of page Career Opportunities
The various programs offered by the school can lead students to a wide range of careers. Programs in performance or composition are intended for students who desire to continue their musical training in graduate programs that will prepare them for professional careers in performance, composition and/or teaching at the college level.

Those who elect the emphasis in music industry will be prepared for positions in a broad area of music-business occupations and for admission to graduate professional schools of business.

The music education program prepares students to teach vocal and/or instrumental music in public schools.

The music theatre program is designed to prepare vocal music majors for the field of popular Broadway musical theatre performance as well as for careers in opera and operetta.

The following list of careers is only a small sample of the many possibilities. For more information about career options, contact the school director.

  • Artistsí manager
  • Composer
  • Conductor
  • Entertainment lawyer
  • Music journalist
  • Music librarian
  • Music software developer
  • Orchestra manager
  • Performing artist
  • Professional accompanist
  • Professor/Teacher
  • Record producer
Back to top of page Co-curricular Activities and Organizations
The following activities are open to all JMU students without audition:
  • Concert Band
  • Marching Royal Dukes
  • Chorus
The following activities are open to all JMU students with audition or instructor permission:
  • Brass Band
  • Brass Ensembles
  • Chamber Orchestra
  • Chorale
  • Clarinet Choir
  • Flute Choir
  • Guitar Ensemble
  • Horn Choir
  • Jazz Band
  • Jazz Chamber Ensembles
  • Jazz Ensemble
  • Madison Singers
  • Opera Theatre
  • Opera Theatre Orchestra
  • Percussion Ensemble
  • Piano Accompanying
  • String Ensembles
  • Symphonic Band
  • Symphony Orchestra
  • Trombone Choir
  • Trumpet Ensemble
  • Tuba and Euphonium Ensemble
  • Wind Symphony
  • Woodwind Ensembles
Back to top of page Admission Requirements
Students choosing to major in music must possess a solid background and experience in the performance medium they elect for their major, and they should display sufficient musical talent to indicate promise in their field.

To be considered for undergraduate admission to the music program, all entering first year students, transfer students and previously enrolled students seeking re-admission must complete the following:

  • Submit an application for admission to JMUís Office of Admission.
  • Submit the Undergraduate Music Application Form and request an audition date from those indicated on the form.
An information packet containing audition guidelines, an audition application and other pertinent materials will be sent to prospective music majors upon request. Applications are also available online at www.jmu.edu/music/app.html. Students can obtain information packets by visiting the School of Music office or by contacting the music admissions coordinator, Dr. Michele Kirkdorffer, or an admissions assistant at (540) 568-3851 or at music_admit@jmu.edu.
Back to top of page Audition, Exam and Placement Test
No student will be accepted as a music major until an audition and a music aptitude test are successfully completed. A piano placement test will also be taken but has no bearing on acceptance.

All candidates are expected to perform the entrance audition on one of the scheduled audition dates. The school does not encourage special appointments and will arrange them only when applicants have serious conflicts with the scheduled auditions. Because assessing a studentís ability through a recorded performance is difficult, only students who live at great distances are encouraged to send audition recordings. All recordings submitted must be of high quality and demonstrate the studentís ability.

The audition should reveal the studentís highest level of musical attainment. Appropriate literature in at least two varying styles and tempos is suggested so that the school can evaluate the candidateís ability accurately. The theory test is an aural-skills aptitude test and is part of the admissions process. The piano test primarily determines class-level placement.

In addition to meeting the audition requirements above, all students who intend to major or minor in the Bachelor of Music, Emphasis in Music Industry or the Music Industry minor are required to first complete MUI 221 and then enroll in MUI 231 and MUI 250. To successfully complete MUI 250, prospective majors and minors must submit an portfolio for review, showing evidence of their interest and potential for success in the music industry. The portfolio should represent work completed in the above classes with assistance in resume preparation form the Office of Academic Advising and Career Development. Portfolios will be reviewed once each fall and once each spring semester. Following the portfolio review, students who are recommended for the major or minor will be eligible to register for upper level music industry classes. Students who are not recommended for admission to the major or minor may reapply the following semester. For additional details, see the School of Musicís Undergraduate Student Handbook. To obtain the schedule of portfolio review sessions, as well as other specific information about the admission process, contact the School of Music, Music Industry area.

Back to top of page Music Scholarships
The entrance audition also serves as the scholarship audition. All music scholarships are awarded on the basis of merit. Recorded auditions will not qualify a prospective student for consideration to receive a music scholarship. A transfer student on scholarship at another school can only be considered for a scholarship at JMU if the music executive of the current school sends a written release to the director of the School of Music.
Back to top of page Retention Policy
Students admitted as music majors must meet school standards, as published in the School of Music Student Handbook, if they are to continue. To ensure that these standards are met, the Music Academic Review Committee examines each music majorís progress at the end of each semester in accordance with policies stated in the handbook.

Music majors must earn a minimum grade of ďC-Ē in all music courses required for their degree.

Back to top of page Degree and Major Requirements
  Bachelor of Music Degree
The Bachelor of Music degree offers five specialized majors: performance, composition, music industry, music education and music theatre. All music majors must complete the general education program and a 27 credit hour core program of music courses common to all the majorsí curricula. The remaining hours are specified under each of the various majors and concentrations.

Music majors must perform in at least one adviser-approved ensemble each semester in which they enroll for at least twelve credit hours. An exception is made for music education majors during the student-teaching semester. All music students should enroll in class piano each semester until they meet the requirements appropriate to their specific degree or concentration. Graduating seniors must participate in assessment activities including assessment day.

Another vital aspect of the programs is attendance at recitals and concerts. Attending these events contributes to the breadth of studentsí knowledge of music literature. Hearing performances also allows students to observe performing techniques from the student to the professional levels. Consequently, undergraduate music majors must attend a minimum of 20 recitals per semester for six semesters, totaling 120 attendances during their degree studies. Students must continue to register for MUS 195 until they fulfill this requirement.

Degree Requirements
Required Courses
Credit Hours
General Education courses1
41
Core music program courses
27
Major concentration courses and electives
56-63

124-131
1 The General Education program contains a set of requirements each student must fulfill. The number of credit hours necessary to fulfill these requirements may vary.
Major Requirements
Core Requirements
Credit Hours
Choose one of the following:
1
MUS 101. Keyboard Skills I (required for music industry majors and prerequisite for MUS 202-303)
MUS 303. Keyboard Skills IV (all music majors except music industry; must be passed prior to student teaching)
MUS 141-142. Theory I: Writing and Analysis Techniques
6
MUS 143-144. Theory I: Aural Perception and Analysis
2
MUS 195. Recital Attendance (six semesters)
0
MUS 241-242. Theory II: Writing and Analysis Techniques
6
MUS 243-244. Theory II: Aural Perception and Analysis
2
MUS 317. Basic Conducting
2
MUS 373,374,375,376. Music History
8

27
Recommended Schedule for First Year Majors
The first year of study shares a common curriculum for all concentrations. The year is devoted to courses from the basic music core requirements, general education courses, ensemble participation and applied study in the studentís major applied area.

A typical first year course of study might be:

First Year
First Semester
Credit Hours
Choose one of the following:
1
MUS 100, 101. Keyboard Skills I-II
MUS 202, 303. Keyboard Skills III-IV
MUS 141. Theory I: Writing and Analysis Techniques
3
MUS 143. Theory I: Aural Perception and Analysis
1
MUS 195. Recital Attendance
0
GWRIT 103. Critical Reading and Writing
3
Applied music major course
2
Music ensemble course
1-2
General Education courses
3

14-15
 
First Year
Second Semester
Credit Hours
Choose one of the following:
1
MUS 101. Keyboard Skills I
MUS 202, 303. Keyboard Skills III-IV
MUS 142. Theory I: Writing and Analysis Techniques
3
MUS 144. Theory I: Aural Perception and Analysis
1
MUS 195. Recital Attendance
0
Applied music major course
2
Music ensemble course
1-2
General Education courses
6

14-15
For a recommended eight-semester outline of curricular requirements for each major concentration, see the School of Musicís Undergraduate Student Handbook.
Back to top of page Bachelor of Music in Performance
  Vocal Concentration
  • Dr. Carrie L. Stevens, Coordinator
  • Phone: (540) 568-6393
  • E-mail: stevencl@jmu.edu
Courses1
Credit Hours
Choose one of the following:
8
FR 101-102. Elementary French
GER 101-102. Elementary German
ITAL 101-102. Elementary Italian
MUS 120. Diction for Singers I
1
MUS 121. Diction for Singers II
1
MUS 304. Advanced Keyboard Skills
2
MUS 318. Intermediate Choral Conducting
2
MUS 395. Junior or Senior Half Recital
0
MUS 195. Recital Attendance (six semesters)
0
MUS 444. Counterpoint
2
MUS 450. Advanced Music Analysis
2
MUS 465. Opera History and Literature2
3
MUS 467. Solo Vocal Literature
3
MUS 477. Vocal Pedagogy2
2
MUS 495. Senior Graduation Recital
1
Applied voice study
22
Basic music core requirements
27
Ensembles (one each semester)
8
General Education courses
41
Approved music electives3
2

127
1 Additional requirements: Admission to this concentration by successful completion of performance audition, no sooner than end of first year as approved music major.
2 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major.
3 Approved music electives may not be fulfilled by additional ensemble credits.
  Piano Concentration
  • Dr. Eric K. Ruple, Coordinator
  • Phone: (540) 568-6375
  • E-mail: rupleek@jmu.edu
Courses1
Credit Hours
MUS 371. Private Piano Pedagogy
3
MUS 372. Supervised Private Piano Teaching
1
MUS 395. Junior or Senior Half Recital
0
MUS 420. Piano Technology
2
MUS 443-444. Counterpoint
4
MUS 449-450. Advanced Music Analysis
4
MUS 460. Piano Literature I2
2
MUS 470. Piano Literature II
2
MUS 495. Senior Graduation Recital
1
Applied piano study
22
Applied secondary area(s)
2
Basic music core requirements
27
Ensembles (one each semester)
8
General Education courses
41
Approved music electives3
8

127
1 Additional requirements: Admission to this concentration by successful completion of performance audition, no sooner than end of first year as approved music major.
2 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major.
3 Approved music electives may not be fulfilled by additional ensemble credits, and must include at least two of the following music history courses: MUS 462, Music of the Romantic Period; MUS 463, 20th Century Music; MUS 478, Music During the Baroque Period; MUS 479, Music During the Classical Period.
  Piano Concentration, Emphasis in Accompanying/Coaching
  • Dr. Gabriel Dobner, Coordinator
  • Phone: (540) 568-6002
  • E-mail: dobnergt@jmu.edu
Courses
Credit Hours
Choose one of the following:
4
FR 101. Elementary French
GER 101. Elementary German
ITAL 101. Elementary Italian
MUS 120. Diction for Singers I
1
MUS 121. Diction for Singers II
1
Choose one of the following:
2
MUS 318. Intermediate Choral Conducting
MUS 319. Intermediate Instrumental Conducting
MUS 371. Private Piano Pedagogy
3
MUS 395. Junior or Senior Half Recital
0
MUS 444. Counterpoint
2
MUS 450. Advanced Music Analysis
2
MUS 460. Piano Literature I1
2
MUS 467. Solo Vocal Literature
3
MUS 495. Senior Graduation Recital
1
Applied piano accompanying
9
Applied piano study
13
Applied voice study
2
Basic music core requirements
27
General Education courses
41
Approved music electives2
5
Ensembles (one each semester)
8

126
1 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major. 2 Approved music electives may not be fulfilled by additional ensemble credits.
  Instrumental Concentration
  • Dr. Susan Barber, Dr. Carl Donakowski and Prof. Kevin Stees, Co-coordinators
  • Phone: (540) 568-6197
  • E-mail: barbersn@jmu.edu, donakocp@jmu.edu, steeskj@jmu.edu
Courses1
Credit Hours
MUS 319. Intermediate Instrumental Conducting
2
MUS 395. Junior or Senior Half Recital
0
Choose two of the following:
4
MUS 443-444. Counterpoint and/or
MUS 449-450. Advanced Music Analysis
MUS 463. Twentieth Century Music2
3
MUS 472. Instrumental Pedagogy
1
MUS 495. Graduation Recital
1
Applied music courses (major instrument)
22
Basic music core requirements
27
Chamber ensembles (in addition to the eight semester major ensemble requirement)
6
Ensembles (one each semester)3
8
General Education courses
41
Advanced music literature elective
3
Approved music electives (Music literature, theory, and/or secondary performance courses. A maximum of two credits may be counted in secondary applied music study.)
6

124
1 Additional requirements: Admission to this concentration by successful completion of performance audition, no sooner than end of first year as approved music major.
2 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major.
3 Approved music electives may not be fulfilled by additional ensemble credits.
Back to top of page Bachelor of Music in Composition
  • Dr. James S. Hiatt, Coordinator
  • Phone: (540) 568-6465
  • E-mail: hiattjs@jmu.edu
Courses1
Credit Hours
MUS 352. Music Composition
16
MUS 441-442. Music Arranging
6
MUS 443-444. Counterpoint
4
MUS 445. Orchestration
3
MUS 449-450. Advanced Music Analysis
4
MUS 463. Twentieth Century Music2
3
MUS 495. Senior Graduation Recital
1
Applied major study
12
Basic music core requirements
27
Ensembles (one each semester)3
8
General Education courses
41
Music literature electives
3
Additional music electives
2

127
1 Additional requirements: Admission to this concentration by approval of theory/composition faculty. Grades no lower than ďBĒ in all theory and composition courses.
2 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major.
3 Various ensembles approved by adviser.
Back to top of page Bachelor of Music, Emphasis in Music Industry
  • Prof. Rick DiGiallonardo, Coordinator
  • Phone: (540) 568-6977
  • E-mail: digialrl@jmu.edu
Courses
Credit Hours
COB 241. Financial Accounting
3
MGT 305. Management and Organizational Behavior
3
MKTG 380. Principles of Marketing
3
MUI 221. Survey of the Music Industry
3
MUI 231. Legal Aspects of the Music Industry
3
MUI 250. Portfolio Review
0
MUI 392. Practicum in Music Industry
1
MUI 440. Entrepreneurship in the Music Industry1
3
MUI 492. Internship in Music Industry
3
Applied major study
14
Basic music core requirements
27
Ensembles (One each semester)
7
General Education courses
41
Music industry electives
12
Free electives
3
MUS 395. Junior or Senior Half Recital
0

126
1 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major.
Back to top of page Bachelor of Music, Emphasis in Music Theatre
  • Dr. Don Rierson, Director of Opera and Music Theatre
  • Phone: (540) 568-4164
  • E-mail: riersodg@jmu.edu
Courses1
Credit Hours
MUI 221. Survey of the Music Industry
3
MUS 120. Diction for Singers I
1
MUS 121. Diction for Singers II
1
MUS/THEA 357. Music Theatre History
3
MUS 395. Junior or Senior Half Recital
0
MUS 465. Opera History and Literature3
3
THEA 171. Performance Production
3
THEA 251. Basic Acting
3
THEA 273. Visual Aspects of Theatre
3
THEA 353. Music Theatre Workshop
3
THEA 483. Music Theatre Form and Analysis
3
DANC 246. Intermediate Jazz Dance
2
DANC 346. Intermediate Jazz II/Musical Theatre Styles
2
Applied voice study
16
Music, theatre or dance electives
3
Basic music core requirements
27
Ensembles (one each semester, as listed below)3
8
General Education courses
41

125
1 Additional requirements: Admission to this concentration by successful completion of performance audition, no sooner than end of first year as approved music major.
2 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major.
3 Bachelor of Music in Music Theatre majors must participate in MUAP 343, Opera Theatre, for at least four semesters. They may elect to fill the ensemble requirement in their remaining semesters by taking any of the credited vocal ensembles of the school - Chorus; Menís or Womenís Chorus; Chorale; Madison Singers; Opera Theatre. A minimum of one credit of ensemble must be selected each semester.
Back to top of page Bachelor of Music, with a Concentration in Music Education
  • Dr. Gary K. Ritcher, Coordinator
  • Phone: (540) 568-6753
  • E-mail: ritchegk@jmu.edu
The Bachelor of Music degree in Music Education is designed primarily for those preparing to teach vocal or instrumental music in public schools. In addition to the School of Music requirements outlined below, students seeking a degree in music education must meet all the criteria for admission to the teacher education program and complete the professional education sequence for teaching licensure.
Teaching Licensure Requirements
Students who want to pursue the music education program must earn acceptance into the teaching licensure program offered by the College of Education.
Professional Education Sequence
Required Courses
Credit Hours
EDUC 360. Foundations of American Education
3
EDUC 480. Student Teaching (senior year)
12
GPSYC 160. Life Span Human Development Pre-adolescent and Adolescent Child
3
READ 420. Content Area Literacy, K-12
2
Vocal Concentration (Applied study in voice or piano)
Courses1
Credit Hours
MUED 206. Instrument Familiarization
1
MUED 271. Introduction to Music Education2
2
MUED 372. General Music Practices
2
MUED 376. Choral Materials and Techniques
2
MUED 380. Music in the Elementary School
2
MUED 471. Jazz and Show Choir Procedures
2
MUS 120. Diction for Singers I
1
MUS 121. Diction for Singers II
1
MUS 150. Introduction to Technological Applications in Music
1
MUS 318. Intermediate Choral Conducting
2
MUS 395. Junior or Senior Half Recital
0
MUS 441. Vocal Arranging
3
MUS 477. Vocal Pedagogy2
2
Applied major study (voice or keyboard)
12
Applied secondary area (voice for piano majors; MUS 304. Advanced Keyboard Skills for voice majors)3
2
Basic music core requirements
27
Ensembles (one each semester)
7
General Education courses4
38-41
Professional education sequence
20

127-130
1 Additional requirements: Piano majors may elect MUAP 357. Piano Accompanying and Piano Ensemble for two semesters.
2 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major.
3 Vocal majors must pass the Advanced Keyboard Skills exam.
4 GPSYC 160 may double count as a Cluster 5 course in General Education
Instrumental Concentration (Applied study in winds, strings, percussion)
Courses1
Credit Hours
MUED 271. Introduction to Music Education2
2
Instrumental Techniques classes3
7
MUED 301-302. Woodwind Techniques
MUED 303-304. Brass Techniques
MUED 305-306. Percussion Techniques
MUED 307-308. String Techniques
MUED 310. Vocal Techniques
1
MUED 371. Beginning Methods and Materials for Instrumental Music
2
MUED 373. Advanced Methods and Materials for Instrumental Music
2
Choose one of the following:
2
MUED 470. Marching Band Procedures
MUED 472. Survey of String and Orchestra Repertoire
MUS 150. Introduction to Technological Applications in Music
1
MUS 319. Intermediate Instrumental Conducting
2
MUS 395. Junior or Senior Half Recital
0
MUS 442. Instrumental Arranging
3
Applied music study (major instrument)
13
Basic music core requirements
27
Ensembles (one each semester)
7
General Education courses4
38-41
Professional education sequence
20

127-130
1 Additional requirements: Wind and percussion majors are required to participate in marching band for a minimum of two years, but participation every year is recommended.
2 This course fulfills the College of Visual and Performing Arts writing-intensive requirement for the major.
3 One credit required in major Instrument area. Two credits in other three instrumental areas.
4 GPYSC 160 may double-count as a Cluster 5 course in General Education.
Back to top of page Endorsement in Both Vocal and Instrument Music
Students desiring licensure in both instrumental and vocal music must complete the requirements of both concentrations, including 12 credits of student teaching in each area. All students desiring double endorsement should consult the coordinator of music education to plan their programs.

Double licensure may add over a year to the studentís program.

Back to top of page Minor Requirements
General Music Minor1
Open to all JMU undergraduate students, the general music minor develops both the performing and non- performing musicianís understanding of music. The minor requires the successful completion of six hours drawn from three areas Ė fundamentals, literature and history, and electives Ė for a total of 18 credit hours. Students must earn 50 percent of the required curriculum at JMU.
Required Courses
Credit Hours
Fundamentals
6
MUS 131, 132. Fundamentals of Music
MUS 141, 142. Writing and Analysis Techniques
Literature and History
6
GMUS 200. Music in General Culture
GMUS 203. Music in America
GMUS 206. Global Music 18th Century to the Present
MUS 356. The History of Jazz in America
MUS 357. Music Theatre History
MUS 373, 374, 375, 376. Music History
Electives Ė Any music course may count in this category, examples include:
6
All music ensembles
MUI 221. Survey of the Music Industry
MUI 410. Songwriting
MUI 422. Concert Production and Promotion
MUED 380. Music in Elementary School
MUS 204. History of Rock
MUS 240/440. Jazz Improvisation
MUS 456. Choral Literature
MUS 463. Twentieth Century Music
Professional education sequence

18
1 The minor in music does not qualify a student to teach music in Virginia public schools.
Back to top of page Music Industry Minor
Open to all JMU undergraduate students, the music industry minor provides students majoring in other disciplines with a foundation for exploring career opportunities in the entertainment industry. The minor requires successful completion of MUI 221, Survey of the Music Industry; MUI 323, Legal Aspects of the Music Industry and of an additional 12 elective credit hours. Students must earn 50 percent of the required curriculum at JMU.
Required Courses
Credit Hours
MUI 221. Survey of the Music Industry
3
MUI 321. Legal Aspects of the Music Industry
3
MUI 250. Portfolio Review
0
Electives Ė Any music industry course may count in this category, examples include:
12
MUI 324. Introduction to Audio Devices
MUI 392. Practicum in Music Industry
MUI 400. Multi-track Recording Techniques I
MUI 401. Multi-track Recording Techniques II
MUI 410. Songwriting
MUI 411. Film Scoring: Music in Entertainment and Broadcast Media
MUI 422. Concert Production and Promotion
MUI 430. Artist Management
MUI 435. Marketing of Recorded Music
MUI 440. Entrepreneurship in the Music Industry
MUI 492. Internship in Music Industry

18
Back to top of page Jazz Studies Minor
Open to all undergraduate students at JMU, the jazz studies minor helps students majoring in other disciplines understand and perform the jazz art form. The minor requires the successful completion of 15 credit hours in specified music courses and five credit hours in jazz ensembles. Students must earn 50 percent of the required curriculum at JMU.
Required Courses
Credit Hours
MUS 141. Writing and Analysis Theory I
3
MUS 143. Theory Lab I
1
MUS 240. Improvisation Lab I
2
MUS 356. History of Jazz in America
3
MUS 440. Improvisation Lab II (repeat 3 times)
6
Ensembles (choose from the following):
5
MUAP 347. Jazz Ensembles
MUAP 348. Jazz Band
MUAP 355. Jazz Chamber Ensemble
MUED 471. Jazz and Show Choir Procedures
MUED 473. Jazz Ensemble Procedures and Techniques

20